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Title: Anti-Oedemic, Antipyretic and Antinociceptive effects of the Ethanol root extract of Albizia Zygia (dc.) j.f. macbr (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)
Authors: Lamptey, Stanley Benjamin
Issue Date: 23-Jan-2017
Abstract: Medications for inflammation, pain and fever are the most frequently patronized over-the-counter drugs. Research into these medicines is nevertheless unending, due to the need for newer improved alternatives. Albizia zygia (DC.) J.F. Macbr is such an alternative; it is used traditionally in pain and fever therapy. The plant is widespread in forest zones of West and East Africa, and Asia. In this study, the actions of the ethanol extract of the roots of Albizia zygia (AZE) on inflammation (oedema and oxidative imbalance), fever and pain were investigated. Animal models of acute oral toxicity, acute inflammation, pyrexia and nociception were employed. The primary phytochemical assay of AZE disclosed the constituents: saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and glycosides. There was no death recorded after acute oral toxicity studies conducted; LD50 of AZE was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. AZE (30-300 mg/kg; p.o.) and diclofenac administrations in the prophylactic and therapeutic protocols of carrageenan-induced pedal oedema significantly attenuated pedal swelling in the ipsilateral paw by the highest doses [AZE: 57.65±6.70 % (pre-emptive) and 55.41±7.37 % (curative); Diclofenac: 77.08±3.80 % (pre-emptive) and 75.87±4.00 % (curative)]. Evaluation of the extract in Baker’s yeast-induced pyrexia displayed significant inhibition of pyrexia after 4 h of sustained pyrexia. Maximal attenuation of antipyrexia was achieved by AZE at dose 300 mg/kg (F4, 24=18.39; P<0.0001) and highest dose of paracetamol (F4, 25=15.73; P<0.0001). In the in vivo assay of antioxidant activity, pre-treatment of the rats with AZE significantly elevated the endogenous expressions of SOD, CAT and GSH at the inflamed site. AZE also reduced the formation of MDA and the pro-inflammatory enzyme MPO. AZE (F3, 14=9.27; P=0.0012) and morphine (F3, 15=12.91; P=0.0002) significantly augmented the time of reaction to heat (tail immersion test). Mechanical hyperalgesia, initiated with the phlogistic agent carrageenan, was attenuated by AZE (F3, 16=11.90; P=0.0002), and the standards diclofenac (F3, 16=12.52; P=0.0002) and morphine (F3, 16=39.51; P<0.0001). The total number of writhes were maximally inhibited by AZE (85.85±3.96 %) and diclofenac (99.65±0.35 %) at their highest doses. AZE ameliorated formalin-induced nociception in the time-dependent neurogenic and inflammatory phases. Significant analgesic effect of AZE was antagonised by atropine and naloxone pre-administration suggesting that AZE possibly acts via the muscarinic and opioidergic signalling pathways. No negative neurological deficits were observed in the rotarod test, thus, confirming the true analgesic effect of AZE. In all, these results confirm the propensity of the ethanol extract of Albizia zygia in ameliorating oedema, oxidative imbalance, pain and pyrexia.
Description: A Thesis submitted to the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy, 2016.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/10175
Appears in Collections:College of Health Sciences

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