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|Title: ||Human Health Risk and Bioaccessibility of Toxic Metals in Topsoils from Gbani Mining Community in Ghana|
|Authors: ||Darko, Godfred|
Boakye, Kwadwo Owusu
Nkansah, Marian Asantewaa
Yevugah, Lily Lisa
Acheampong, A. A
|Keywords: ||soil contamination|
small-scale artisanal mining
|Issue Date: ||Mar-2019|
|Publisher: ||Journal of Health & Pollution|
|Citation: ||Journal of Health & Pollution, Vol. 9, No. 22|
|Abstract: ||Anthropogenic activities such as artisanal mining pose a major environmental
health concern due to the potential for discharge of toxic metals into the environment.
Objectives. To determine the distribution and pollution patterns of arsenic (As), iron (Fe),
nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the
topsoil of a mining community in Ghana, along with potential human health risks and in vitro
Methods. Concentrations of metals were determined using X-ray fluorescence techniques and
validated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.
Results. Concentrations of the metals in topsoil were in the order of magnitude of Cu (31.38
mg/kg) < Ni (45.39 mg/kg) < As (59.66 mg/kg) < Cr (92.87 mg/kg) < Zn (106.98 mg/kg) <
Mn (1195.49 mg/kg) < Fe (30061.02 mg/kg). Geo-statistical and multivariate analyses based
on hazard indices including contamination, ecological risks, geo-accumulation, and pollution
load suggest that the topsoils are contaminated in the study area. The potential ecological risk
index (PERI) showed high ecological risk effects (PERI=269.09), whereas the hazard index
(1×10−7) and carcinogenic risk index (1×10−5) indicated low human health risks. Elevated
levels of As, Cr, Ni, and Zn were found to emanate from anthropogenic origins, whereas
Fe, Mn, and Cu levels were attributed mainly to geological and atmospheric depositions.
Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and total organic carbon) showed
weak positive correlations to the metal concentrations. Elemental bioaccessibility was variable,
decreasing in the order of Mn (35±2.9%) > Cu (29±2.6%) > Ni (22±1.3%) > As (9±0.5%) > Cr
(4±0.6%) > Fe (2±0.4%).
Conclusions. Incorporation of in-vitro bioaccessibility into the risk characterization models
resulted in a hazard index of less than 1, implying low human health risks. However, due to
accumulation effects of the metals, regular monitoring is required.
Competing Interests. The authors declare no competing financial interests.|
|Description: ||This article is published in Journal of Health & Pollution and also available at DOI: 10.5696/2156-9614-9.22.190602|
|URI: ||DOI: 10.5696/2156-9614-9.22.190602|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Science|
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