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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12360

Title: Levels, potential sources and human health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Kumasi, Ghana
Authors: Bortey-Sam, Nesta
Ikenaka, Yoshinori
Akoto, Osei
Nakayama, Shouta M. M.
Yohannes, Yared Beyene
Baidoo, Elvis
Mizukawa, Hazuki
Ishizuka, Mayumi
Keywords: Airborne particulate
. PAHs
Kumasi
. BaP toxic
equivalent
Incremental lifetime cancer risk
Chemical mass balance
Issue Date: Dec-2014
Publisher: Environ Sci Pollut Res
Citation: Environ Sci Pollut Res
Abstract: Airborne particulate samples were collected on quartz filters to determine the concentrations, sources and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 32 air samples were collected in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus (pristine site) and city centre (CC). Samples were extracted with 1:2v/v acetone/hexane mixture prior to GC–MS analyses. The sum of concentrations of 17 PAHs in air ranged from 0.51 to 16 (KNUST) and 19–38 ng/m3 (CC). The concentration of benzo[a]pyrene, BaP, ranged from below detection limit to 0.08 ng/m3 (KNUST) and 1.6 to 5.6 ng/m3 (CC). Chemical mass balance model showed that PAHs in air in Kumasi were mainly from fuel combustion. The total BaP equivalent concentration (BaPeq) in CC was 18 times higher compared to KNUST; based on the European Legislation and Swedish and UK Standards for BaP in air, CC could be classified as highly polluted. Estimated carcinogenicity of PAHs in terms of BaPeq indicated that BaP was the principal PAH contributor in CC (70 %). Health risk to adults and children associated with PAH inhalation was assessed by taking into account the lifetime average daily dose and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR was within the acceptable range (10−6 to 10−4 ), indicating low health risk to residents.
Description: This article is published in Environ Sci Pollut Res and also available at DOI 10.1007/s11356-014-4022-1
URI: 10.1007/s11356-014-4022-1
http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12360
Appears in Collections:College of Science

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