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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12612

Title: Estimating consumption risk of street vended fufu and fried rice
Authors: Ankar-Brewoo, Gloria Mathanda
Issue Date: 25-Oct-2018
Abstract: Street food vending has for a long time been perceived as an unsafe source of food for the wider consumer population. The prevailing conditions of food preparation and handling is likely to introduce food safety hazards which can be detrimental to the health of the consuming population. Therefore, this study sought to contribute to improving upon the safety of the street vended foods under the prevailing conditions of food preparation and handling. The study also sought to determine vendor practices and challenges that introduce food safety hazards – chemical and microbiological, into the components of two ready-to-eat street vended foods: fried rice and fufu. The hazards were identified through participant observation and informant (vendor and staff) interviews where interview guides and observation check list were used. Samples of the different components of the two street vended fufu and fried rice were bought separately from the vendors and analyzed for the presence and levels of the food safety hazards identified. Consumption characteristics of the street vended foods were also taken from regular consumers of the street vended foods of the vendors used in the study. Microbiological (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the total plate counts) and chemical (metals - (Aluminum, Lead and Iron); polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) (22 USEPA priority PAH) and Bisphenol A) hazards were evaluated using standard methods. The findings from the interviews and observations indicated high staff turnover, access to „good‟ location for vendors as major challenge to business with implications for food safety. Staff had very little knowledge on good food handling practices thus affecting safety since they are the main handlers of the vended foods. The microbiological analysis indicated high levels of bacterial contaminants in all the food samples. Levels of E. coli (5.49 – 2.53 log CFU/g), S. aureus (6.44 – 4.36 log CFU/g) and B. cereus (5.44–3.49 log CFU/g) were higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) limit of 3 log CFU/g for the rice, salad, chicken and macaroni ingredients of the fried rice meal sample. Fufu recorded very high levels of all the bacterial contaminants, E. coli, above 3 log CFU/g limit set by WHO. The total plate counts for all the sample meal ingredients were also above 6 log CFU/g. However, levels of bacterial contaminants in the soup were all below the limits set by the WHO. Assessing the level of risk associated with the consumption of these street vended foods using the quantitative microbial risk assessment approach, indicated high consumption levels of bacteria. It also showed that at all levels of consumption, consumers are at risk of microbial food borne illness. Sensitivity analysis showed that interventions must be focused on preventing or drastically reducing the levels of E. coli in the salad, macaroni and fufu ingredients and S. aureus and B. cereus in fried rice, salad and fufu. The levels of Iron (Fe) in the cooked samples, rice (2.33 mg.kg-1), chicken (3.08 mg.kg-1) macaroni (2.06 mg.kg-1), fufu (3.05 mg.kg-1) and soup (3.60 mg.kg-1) were relatively higher than in the corresponding raw samples which suggested possible leaching from the utensils used in processing. Lead (Pb) levels (7.43 mg.kg-1 to 11.25 mg.kg-1) were highest in shito samples followed by mayonnaise with an average value of 7.08 mg.kg-1. Leaching from the utensil best explains the levels of Pb in the shito samples as locally manufactured utensil is used for its preparation. Rice, shito, ketchup and macaroni also had very high levels of aluminum (Al), (above 5 mg.kg-1) relative to the uncooked samples also implying possible leaching from utensils. The evaluated PAH of interest were BaP and DahA. These are the most potent carcinogens among the USEPA priority PAH. These PAH were detected in the chicken, shito and soup samples. Pyrene (Pyr), a precursor of BaP was detected in all the cooked food samples except fufu in levels between 4.8E-07 mg.kg-1 and 2.0E-02 mg.kg-1
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12612
Appears in Collections:College of Science

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