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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12818

Title: Environmental health risks and benefits of the use of mosquito coils as malaria prevention and control strategy
Authors: Hogarh, Jonathan N.
Agyekum, Thomas P.
Bempah, Crentsil Kofi
Owusu‑Ansah, Emmanuel D. J.
Avicor, Silas W.
et. al
Keywords: Malaria,
Mosquito coils
Indoor air pollution
Risk characterization
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Malaria Journal
Abstract: Background: Malaria is an infectious disease that causes many deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. In resource-poor malaria endemic communities, mosquito coils are commonly applied in households to repel the vector mosquito that transmits malaria parasites. In applying these coils, users have mainly been interested in the environmental health benefits potentially derived from repelling the mosquito, while oblivious of the environmental health risks that may be associated with exposure to emissions from the use of mosquito coil. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the mosquito coil, ascertained and/or estimated the toxic emissions that may emanate from the coil, and determined its overall appropriateness by conducting a risk–benefit analysis of the use of this strategy in malaria prevention at household levels. Methods: The repellent ability of mosquito coils was tested by conducting a mosquito knockdown/mortality test in experimental chambers synonymous of local room spaces and conditions. The gaseous and particulate emissions from the mosquito coil were also analysed. Additional scenarios were generated with the Monte Carlo technique and a risk–benefit analysis was conducted applying @Risk software. Results: Mosquito mortality arising from the application of various mosquito coils averagely ranged between 24 and 64%, which might not provide adequate repellency effect. Emissions from the mosquito coil were also found to contain CO, VOCs, SO2, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10. The Hazard Index of the respective pollutants characterized over a lifetime exposure scenario was low (< 1 for each pollutant), which suggests that the concentrations of the specific chemicals and particulate matter emitted from the mosquito coil may not constitute adverse environmental health risk. Conclusion: Although the risk of morbidity from the use of the mosquito coil was low, the coil yielded limited protection as a mosquito avoidance method. It may, therefore, have a reduced benefit in controlling malaria and should be applied sparingly in a highly regulated manner only when traditionally proven effective vector control strategies are not available or too expensive for resource-poor malaria endemic regions.
Description: An article published by Malaria Journal and also available at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2412-4
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12818
Appears in Collections:College of Science

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