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|Title: ||The association between dietary consumption, anthropometric measures and body composition of rural and urban Ghanaian adults: a comparative crosssectional study|
|Authors: ||Agyapong, Nana Ama F.|
Annan, Reginald A.
Aduku, Linda N. E.
Swart, Elizabeth C.
Body mass index
|Issue Date: ||2020|
|Publisher: ||BMC Nutrition|
|Citation: ||BMC Nutrition (2020) 6:21; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00339-6|
|Abstract: ||Background: Overweight and obesity have become threats to public health in all regions across the globe including
sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence used to be low. Policies to regulate the food environment and promote healthy
food consumption look promising to reducing the prevalence of obesity but in Ghana there is not enough data to
elicit a policy response. This study assessed the association between dietary consumption, anthropometric measures,
body composition and physical activity among rural and urban Ghanaian adults.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 565 Ghanaian adults. Structured interviewer administered
questionnaires were used to collect information on socio-demographics. Dietary consumption was assessed
using household food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and
body composition of all participants were determined. The World Health Organization’s Global Physical
Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to assess physical activity levels. Mann-Whitney U test was used to
analyze differences in anthropometric measures, body composition and consumption among rural and urban
participants. Principal component analysis was used to analyze household food frequency data and nutrient
analysis template was used to analyze 24-h recall. Chi-square was used to measure differences in obesity
prevalence by community and gender. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the risk factors
associated with obesity.Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity using BMI were 29.9 and 22.9% respectively. Use of waist
circumference measurement resulted in the highest overall obesity prevalence of 41.5%. Prevalence of obesity
was higher among females compared to males across all measures with the exception of visceral fat that showed no
significant difference. Four different patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Among urban participants, the
staple pattern showed a significant negative correlation with visceral fat (r − 0.186, p-value 0.013) and BMI (r − 0.163, p-value
0.029). Multinomial logistic regression revealed that males (AOR 19.715, CI 9.723–39.978, p-value < 0.001) had higher odds of
being of normal weight compared to females.
Conclusion: Prevalence of overweight and obesity continue to rise in Ghana, especially among females. Public education
and screening as well as interventions that regulate the food environment and make affordable and available healthy food
options are needed to control the rise in obesity prevalence.|
|Description: ||An article published by BMC Nutrition (2020) 6:21; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00339-6|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Science|
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