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|Title: ||Profiling Immuno-Metabolic Mediators of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Metformin-Treated Type II Diabetes Patients in Ghana|
|Authors: ||Sakyi, Samuel Asamoah|
Laing, Edwin F.
Dadzie, Richard Ephraim
Afranie, Bright Oppong
Metformin-induced vitamin B12 Deficiency
|Issue Date: ||2020|
|Publisher: ||Research Square|
|Citation: ||Research Square; 2020 and available at: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-117906/v1|
|Abstract: ||Background: The association between prolong metformin usage and B12 deficiency has been
documented. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed
substantial disparity among studies due to varied study definitions of vitamin B12 deficiency. Metformin
blocks the calcium dependent absorption of the vitamin B12-Intrinsic Factor complex at the terminal
ileum. Lack of intrinsic factor due to the presence of auto-antibodies to parietal cells (IFA) could lead to
vitamin B12 deficiency and subsequently cause peripheral neuropathy. We investigated the prevalence of
vitamin B12 deficiency using more sensitive, combined markers of vitamin B12 status (4cB12) and the
immuno-biochemical mediators of vitamin B12 deficiency.
Methods: In this observational study, 200 consecutive metformin-treated T2DM patients, aged 35 and
above, attending the diabetic clinic at KATH were recruited. Vitamin B12 deficiency was classified based
on the Fedosov age-normalized wellness quotient. Anthropometric measurement was taken as well as
blood samples for immunological and biochemical mediators. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed
using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Statistical analysis was performed using
the R Language for Statistical Computing version 3.6.0.
Results: Using the combined indicator (4cB12), the prevalence of metformin induced vitamin B12
deficiency was 40.5% whilst the prevalence of MNSI-Q and MNSI-PE diabetic neuropathy was 67.5% and
93.5% respectively. Participants with vitamin B12 deficiency had significantly higher levels of IFA, GPA,
TNF-α, TC, LDL and albumin compared to those with normal vitamin B12 levels (p < 0.05). Correlation
analysis revealed a statistically significant negative association between 4cB12 and the immunological
markers [AIF (rs= -0.301, p<0.0001), GPA (rs= -0.244, p=0.001), TNF-α (rs= -0.242, p=0.001) and IL-6 (rs=
-0.145, p=0.041)]. Likewise, 4cB12 was negatively associated with TC (rs= -0.203, p=0.004) and LDL (rs=
-0.222, p=0.002) but positively correlated with HDL (rs= 0.196, p=0.005).
Conclusion: Vitamin B12 deficiency and diabetic neuropathy are very high among metformin-treated
T2DM patients and it is associated with increased GPA, IFA, TNF-α and cardiometabolic risk factors
(higher LDL and TC and lower HDL). It is imperative Ghana include routine measurement of Vitamin B12
deficiency using the more sensitive combined indicators (4cB12), in the management of T2DM patients
|Description: ||An article published in Research Square; 2020 and available at: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-117906/v1|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Health Sciences|
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