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|Title: ||Prevalence and risk factors of cryptosporidium infection among children with diarrhoea reporting at the Presbyterian Hospital, Agogo, Ghana|
|Authors: ||Oppong, Kwabena|
|Keywords: ||Risk Factors|
Children with Diarrhoea
|Issue Date: ||19-Jul-2021|
|Abstract: ||Cryptosporidium, an enteric coccidian pathogen, causes diarrhoea in children and
adults worldwide. In immunocompetent persons, Cryptosporidium infection
(cryptosporidiosis) is often self-limiting but can be severe and life threatening in
infants and immune-suppressed patients; however, the disease is under-recognised.
This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence and assess the risk factors
associated with cryptosporidiosis among children who reported at the OPD of Agogo
Presbyterian hospital (APH) with diarrhoea from January to December 2017. A total
of 204 stool samples were collected from these diarrhoea patients with the consent of
their parents or guardians and tested for Cryptosporidium using rapid diagnostic test
kit (RDT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Through follow-ups on patients whose samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium
(Index cases), 58 stool samples were collected from household members, 78 from
neighbours, and 92 from animals.
Real time PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) PCR, and 60KDa
glycoprotein (gp60) PCR assays were employed to identify and characterise the
Cryptosporidium species isolated. A prevalence of 9.80% was recorded from the
index cases based on the RDT results. Among household members and neighbours of
the index cases, the highest prevalence recorded was 8.62% and 21.80%, respectively
and 21.74% among animals based on the PCR-RFLP results. From the genomic
sequence analysis of species isolated, 3 (6.98%) of the isolates were classified as C.
felis, 14 (32.56%) as C. hominis, 1 (2.33%) as C. meleagridis, 11 (25.58%) as C.
parvum, and 14 (32.56%) as C. xiaoi.
With the exception of C. xiaoi, which was found in only animals, all the other
Cryptosporidium species were found in humans. To assess the relationships between
Cryptosporidium infection and socio-demographic characteristics, which have
suggestively been implicated in the transmission of the disease, Fischer’s exact test
and Pearson’s Chi square test was used to assess the significance of association
between some socio-demographic characteristics and cryptosporidiosis. However, no
significant association was observed between these risk factors and cryptosporidiosis.
In conclusion, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium was found to be 9.80% among
children who reported to the OPD of APH with diarrhoea. Testing for
Cryptosporidium is therefore recommended to be part of the routine diagnostic tests
performed for children and other immunocompromised patients who report to the
hospital with diarrhoea.|
|Description: ||A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Philosophy in the Department of Clinical Microbiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, College Of Health Sciences. June, 2019|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Health Sciences|
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