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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/14494

Title: Short term effects of hormonal contraceptives on lipid profile and cardiovascular disease risk
Authors: Apusiga, Kingsley
Bedu-Addo, Kweku
Keywords: Hormonal Contraceptives
Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Issue Date: 23-Jul-2021
Abstract: Background: Despite helping to achieve birth control, hormonal contraceptives have widely known side effects. Even with low dosage formulations of the synthetic hormones, it is still important to investigate which form and route of administration of hormonal contraceptives has little effect on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease risks. Aim: To investigate the short term (3 months) effects of the injectable and implant contraceptives on the lipid profile and cardiovascular disease risk of users. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design and a purposive random sampling technique, serum lipid profile of 81 subjects made up of 28 implant users (women initiating the use of levonorgestrel), 38 injectable users (women initiating the use of DMPA) and 15 non-hormonal contraceptive users (women not using any form of hormonal contraceptives) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 months of contraceptive use. Lipid profile was determined using an automated analyzer (ATAC 8000). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted on data collected at baseline and at 3 months using IBM SPSS version 24 to compare group differences. Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences between the groups in relevant baseline characteristics. Mean age (28.60 ± 5.40, 27.68 ± 5.66, 25.76 ± 1.07 at p=0.220), mean SBP (106.40 ± 11.56, 112.46 ± 10.02, 110.66 ± 14.20 at p=0.316), mean pulse (84.13 ± 12.67, 85.04 ± 11.87, 82.66 ± 11.14 at p=0.710), mean TC (161.88 ± 21.31, 161.59 ± 29.63, 1162.94 ± 33.63 at p=0.983) and mean TG (82.41 ± 34.58, 91.53 ± 37.87, 92.56 ± 47.21 at p=0.720) for the control, implant and injectable groups respectively were not significantly different. After 3 months of contraceptive use, DMPA was found to increase SBP (p=0.110), pulse (p=0.001), TC (p=0.052) and TG (p=0.022). levonorgestrel use was associated with a reduction in SBP, pulse, TC and TG. Both DMPA and levonorgestrel slightly raises both CRI-I and CRI-II but do not put users at a high risk for coronary heart diseases. Conclusions: DMPA (injectable) use increases Systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and results in a 6% incidence of coronary heart disease in a 3-month usage. Levonorgestrel (implant) reduces systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease by 6% in a 3-month usage.
Description: A thesis submitted to the Department of Physiology of the School of Medicine and Dentistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Award Degree of Master of philosophy in human physiology .July, 2019
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/14494
Appears in Collections:College of Health Sciences

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