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|Title: ||Short term effects of hormonal contraceptives on lipid profile and cardiovascular disease risk|
|Authors: ||Apusiga, Kingsley|
|Keywords: ||Hormonal Contraceptives|
Cardiovascular Disease Risk
|Issue Date: ||23-Jul-2021|
|Abstract: ||Background: Despite helping to achieve birth control, hormonal contraceptives have widely
known side effects. Even with low dosage formulations of the synthetic hormones, it is still
important to investigate which form and route of administration of hormonal contraceptives has
little effect on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease risks.
Aim: To investigate the short term (3 months) effects of the injectable and implant
contraceptives on the lipid profile and cardiovascular disease risk of users.
Methods: Using a longitudinal study design and a purposive random sampling technique, serum
lipid profile of 81 subjects made up of 28 implant users (women initiating the use of
levonorgestrel), 38 injectable users (women initiating the use of DMPA) and 15 non-hormonal
contraceptive users (women not using any form of hormonal contraceptives) were evaluated at
baseline and at 3 months of contraceptive use. Lipid profile was determined using an automated
analyzer (ATAC 8000). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted on data collected at
baseline and at 3 months using IBM SPSS version 24 to compare group differences.
Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences between the groups in relevant
baseline characteristics. Mean age (28.60 ± 5.40, 27.68 ± 5.66, 25.76 ± 1.07 at p=0.220), mean
SBP (106.40 ± 11.56, 112.46 ± 10.02, 110.66 ± 14.20 at p=0.316), mean pulse (84.13 ± 12.67,
85.04 ± 11.87, 82.66 ± 11.14 at p=0.710), mean TC (161.88 ± 21.31, 161.59 ± 29.63, 1162.94 ±
33.63 at p=0.983) and mean TG (82.41 ± 34.58, 91.53 ± 37.87, 92.56 ± 47.21 at p=0.720) for the
control, implant and injectable groups respectively were not significantly different. After 3
months of contraceptive use, DMPA was found to increase SBP (p=0.110), pulse (p=0.001), TC
(p=0.052) and TG (p=0.022). levonorgestrel use was associated with a reduction in SBP, pulse,
TC and TG. Both DMPA and levonorgestrel slightly raises both CRI-I and CRI-II but do not put
users at a high risk for coronary heart diseases.
Conclusions: DMPA (injectable) use increases Systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, serum total
cholesterol, triglycerides and results in a 6% incidence of coronary heart disease in a 3-month
usage. Levonorgestrel (implant) reduces systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, serum total
cholesterol, triglycerides and reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease by 6% in a 3-month
|Description: ||A thesis submitted to the Department of Physiology of the School of Medicine and Dentistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Award Degree of Master of philosophy in human physiology .July, 2019|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Health Sciences|
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