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|Title: ||The effects of hormonal contraceptives on the blood pressure among users in two healthcare facilities in Kumasi’|
|Authors: ||Kesseh, Nicholas|
|Issue Date: ||23-Jul-2021|
|Abstract: ||BACKGROUND: The effect of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure is debatable.
There is little data in Ghana and a quest to search for risks of hormonal contraceptives. The
association between combined oral contraceptives, progestin only (oral), combined injectable
contraceptives and progestin only (injectable) and the development of hypertension is still not
clear. This is a matter of concern. Hypertension is a key health challenge in both developed
and developing countries causing indisposition and death universally. There is also an
increase in the use of hormonal contraceptives among women of reproductive age. This study
is therefore aimed at investigating the physiological effect of synthetic hormones on the
mechanisms of the body that leads to a rise in angiotensin II which eventually leads to
sodium retention and subsequently high blood pressure.
METHOD: A cohort study was conducted using 91 women whose ages ranged from 18 to 50
at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) and the Maternal and Child Health Hospital,
Pampaso. Approval was sought from the Committees on Human Research Publication and
Ethics Committee of SMS/KNUST, Maternal and Child Health Hospital and KATH and
written informed consents obtained from participants. Sociodemographic characteristics and
reproductive and family planning information were obtained using questionnaire. Blood
pressures and anthropometric measurements were taken throughout the three visit periods.
Blood samples were drawn from study participants at the initial and final visits.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the various methods of
contraceptives used and the development of hypertension. However, majority of those who
used contraceptives for 24 months and over were pre-hypertensives. There was also
significant difference between length of contraceptive use and marital status (p-value=
0.009). The study saw no significant difference between hypertension status and length of
contraceptive use (p-value= 0.573). There were no significant differences between the
systolic blood pressures for baseline, visit one and visit 3 however, there was a significant
difference for systolic pressures at visit two (p-value= 0.050).
Serum sodium (Na) did not give any significant difference with the hypertension status and
angiotensin II was not significant with hypertension status.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that some participants who use contraceptives were
pre-hypertensives and may be at a higher risk of developing hypertension with time. Short
term use of contraceptives is safe. Contraceptives use does not cause an increase in serum
sodium and angiotensin II.|
|Description: ||A thesis submitted to the Department of Physiology in the College of Health Sciences in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree Master of Philosophy: Reproductive Physiology .August, 2019A thesis submitted to the Department of Physiology in the College of Health Sciences in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Master of Philosophy: Reproductive Physiology .August, 2019|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Health Sciences|
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