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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/15648

Title: Burden of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and vascular risk factors among people living with HIV in Ghana
Authors: Sarfo, Fred Stephen
Nichols, Michelle
Agyei, Benedict
Singh, Arti
Ennin, Eugenia
Nyantakyi, Adu Darko
Osei Asibey, Shadrack
Tagge, Raelle
Gebregziabher, Mulugeta
Keywords: HIV
Cardiovascular risk
Carotid atherosclerosis
Issue Date: Dec-2018
Publisher: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Citation: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 397 (2019) 103–111
Abstract: Background: The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa is projected to rise due to a rapid epidemiological transition and improved treatment of HIV infection on the sub-continent. Objective: The Evaluation of Vascular Event Risk while on Long-term Anti-retroviral Suppressive Therapy (EVERLAST) Study sought to assess the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis and characterize the nature of CVD risk factors among HIV patients on Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Ghana. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (n=250) in comparison with HIV positive ART naïve (n=201), and HIV uninfected controls (n=250). We assessed prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, central obesity, and carotid atherosclerosis using Bmode carotid Doppler ultrasonography. We assessed factors associated with subclinical atherosclerosis defined by a carotid intimal media thickness (CIMT) cut-off of ≥0.78mm among PLWH using a logistic regression model. Results: Mean age of PLWH on combination ART (cART) was 45.7 ± 8.6 years, 42.9 ± 8.8 years among PLWH not on cART, and 44.9 ± 9.5 years among HIV negative controls of which 81.2%, 81.6% and 81.1% respectively were females. Prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis at the common carotid artery in the three groups was 67.6%, 66.7% and 62.4%, p=0.43. Among PLWH, raised serum total cholesterol (OR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00–1.35) and triglycerides (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01–1.73) were significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Prevalence of vascular risk factors among PLWH on cART, PLWH cART naïve, and HIV negative controls respectively were as follows: dyslipidemia- 79.5%, 83.1%, and 73.5%, p=0.04; hypertension- 40.2%, 23.4%, and 44.9%, p < 0.0001; central obesity-61.8%, 66.7%, and 78.2%, p < 0.0001; diabetes mellitus-6.8%, 5.5% and 4.9%, p=0.53. Conclusion: Overall while there is a high baseline prevalence of CVD risk factors in the Ghanaian population, serum lipid derangements appear to be more prevalent among HIV infected patients, and are linked to subclinical atherosclerosis. Future studies need to confirm these findings, explore the underlying pathophysiology, and optimize treatment strategies to avert untoward CVD outcomes.
Description: This article is published by Journal of the Neurological Sciences and is also available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2018.12.026
URI: 10.1016/j.jns.2018.12.026
Appears in Collections:College of Health Sciences

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