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|Title: ||Evaluation of cocoa pod husk as feed ingredient for sheep in Ghana|
|Authors: ||Dzoagbe, Godwin Senyo Kwaku|
|Issue Date: ||26-Jun-1989|
|Series/Report no.: ||1749;|
|Abstract: ||A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate cocoa pod husk (CPH) as a feed ingredient in the ration of sheep fed in confinement. The rations designated 1,2,3,4 and 5 contained 60, 45, 30, 15, and 0% dried cocoa pod husk respectively. Other ingredients used in the rations were maize, dried brewer’s spent grains, dried guinea grass meal, common salt, dicalcium phosphate and vitamin-trace mineral premix. The rations were formulated to be isocaloric containing about 8.64 MJ/kg Metabolizable Energy (ME) and isonitrogenous (about 8% C.P.).
Each ration was fed to nine animals except ration 4 which was fed to 10 animals. There were two breeds of sheep (Djallonke and Sahel) and two sexes (male and female). The animals were allocated to the rations. randomly, but as far as possible, balancing for breed and sex
The average daily dry matter intake per unit of metabolic body size per animal was highly significant (P<0.01) affected by dietary treatment but not by breed or sex. The mean daily dry matter intakes per unit metabolic body weight were 61.54, 79.50, 78.18, 70.48 and 61.26g for rations 1,2,3,4, and 5 respectively. The feed intake of the animals, fed rations 1 and 5 was significantly (P<1.01) less than that of those fed rations 2.and 3, while the feed intake of the animals fed ration 4 did not differ significantly (P>0.01) from the intake of the animals fed the other rations. The mean daily dry mater intake figures for the Sahel and the Djallonke breeds were 72.27g and 69.43g per unit metabolic body weight respectively while that of the male and the females were 70.47g and 6995g per unit metabolic body weight respectively.
The mean daily water consumption per unit metabolic body size was highly significantly (P<0..01) affected by dietary treatment. The mean daily water intake values were 198.05, 203.74, 180.28, 165.46 and 149.08m1 per unit metabolic body weight for rations 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively. The sheep fed ration 2 significantly (P<0.01) drank more water than those fed rations 4 and 5 while the sheep fed ration 5 significantly (P<0.01) drank less water than the animals fed the other four rations. The main factors which affected water intake were level of cocoa pod husk in the diet and the amount of water lost in urine and faeces.
Sex and breed did not significantly (P>0.05) affected water intake. The mean daily water intake figures for the Sahel and the Djallonke breeds were 180. 94m1 and 178.27ml per unit metabolic body weight respectively while those for the males and the females were 170.47m1 and 177.50ml per unit metabolic body weight respectively.
The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter were not affected significantly (P>0.05) by dietary treatment. The values obtained for rations 1,2,3,4, and 5 were 44.28, 51.93, 50.10, 49.29 and 52.157 respectively.
Growth rate was highly significantly (P<0.01) affected by ration, sex and breed. The mean daily growth rates for the animals were 20.72g, 46.65g, 43.55, 35.51 g and 22.42g for rations 1,2,3,4, and 5 respectively. The mean daily gains in body weight form the sheep fed rations 2, 3 and 4 were significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of animals fed rations 1 and 5, while the growth rate of sheep fed rations 1 and S did not differ significantly P.>0.01). The sheep fed ration 4 had a significantly lower growth rate (P<0.01) than those fed ration 5.
The mean daily growth rates for Sahel and the Djallonke breed were 39.86g and 31.42g respectively while the values for the males and the females were 3791g and 30.36g respectively. The Sahel breed grew significantly (P<0.01) faster than the Djallonke breed, while the male sheep also grew significantly (P<0.01) faster than the female sheep.
It was observed that the Sahel breed consumed more feed and was more efficient in feed conversion than the Djallonke breed while the males also consumed more feed and utilized the feed more efficiently than the females.
Feed conversion efficiency was significantly (P<0.01) affected by dietary treatment. The mean feed conversion efficiency values were20.96, 11.99, 12.95, 14.31 and 20.20kg/kg gain in body weight for rations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The feed conversion efficiency followed the same trend as growth rate.
Dietary treatment did not have any significant effect (:> 0.05) on the levels of blood constituents measured except the level of alkaline phosphatase. The levels of this enzyme were 3.92, 4.61, 4.65, 4.67 and 4.59 K-A units for rations 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively. Except for the level of alkaline phosphatase, sex did not have any significant (P>0.05) effect on the levels of the blood metabolites, measured. The females had higher levels of the enzyme (4.71 K-A units) than the males (4.37 K-A units). Breed of sheep did not significantly affect the levels of the blood constituents measured except the levels of total proteins and globulins1. The mean levels of the total proteins and globulins for the Babel and Djallanke breeds respectively were 10.75 and 10.llg/1.00ml for the proteins and 4.89 and 4.5lg/l00ml for the globulins.
Dietary treatment did not significantly (P>0.05) affect rumen pH, rumen bacteria and rumen protozoa counts but significantly affected abomasal pH. The rumen pH values for rations 1,2,3,4 and 5 were 6.6, 6.33, 5.98, 5.98 and 6.13 respectively. The abomasal pH values were 2.88, 3.37, 3.50, 3.50 and 3.27 for rations 1,23,4 and 5 respectively. The sheep fed ration 1 had significantly (P<0.05) lower abomasal pH than the animals.fed rations 3 and 4 there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between the abomasal pH of animals fed rations 1,2, and 5. The rumen bacteria count values for sheep fed rations 1,2,3,4 and 5 were 6.32, 7.40, 7.78, 6.10 and 9.21 x 10 per ml of rumen fluid respectively. The rumen protozoa counts form animals fed- rations 1,2,3,4 and 5 were 4.19, 7.6 9, 4.69, 3.70 and 4.25 x 10 per ml of rumen fluid respectively.
Except for the abomasal pH, breed did not have any significant effect (.P>0.05) on any of the other three parameters. The rumen pH values for the Djallonke and the Sahel breeds were 6.18
and 6.23 respectively. The abomasal pH values for the Diallonke and the Babel breeds were 3.23 and 3.52 respectively. The bacterial and protozoal count values for the Djallonke breed and the Sahel breed were 7.76 and 7.29 x l08 (bacterial counts) and 4.82 and 5.00 x l03 (protozoal counts) per ml of rumen fluid respectively.
Dressing percentage was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by ration or breed. The values for rations 1,2,3,4 and 5 were 39.0,’ 41.0, 43.32, 40.06 and 39.68% respectively while those for the breeds were 41.24% for the Djallonke breed and 39.01%, for the Sahel breed. Except for the relative weight of the liver, the relative weights of the internal organs and the offal components of livewight were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by ration or breed. The weight of the liver was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the animals fed ration 1 compared with those fed the other four rations... The values for the relative liver weights of sheep fed rations 1,2,3,4 and 5 were 0, 77, 1.12, 1.12, 1.25 and 1.247, respectively. There, was not much difference in the relative liver weights, of the Sahel breed and the Djallonke breed (1.07%, versus 1.13%).|
|Description: ||A thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Science in Animal Science, 1989|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Agric and Natural Resources|
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