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|Title: ||Treatment and disposal of spent caustic at Tema Oil Refinery (TOR)|
|Authors: ||Ketu, Jonathan|
|Issue Date: ||2-Dec-2013|
|Abstract: ||This research was undertaken to address the issues associated with the treatment options ahead of disposal of spent caustic soda from the Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) in Ghana. The specific objectives were to study the usage of caustic soda in the plant of TOR, analyze the nature and form of the residues and designing a treatment method for treating the spent caustic soda.
Sampling and laboratory analyses were carried out at TOR. Composite samples of spent caustic were analyzed for a period of two months and compared with EPA Ghana sector specific effluent quality guidelines for discharge into natural water bodies for oil and gas exploration, production and refining. Parameters analyzed for included pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and concentrations of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), mercaptan (RSH) and phenol in both influents and effluents. The study revealed that, the measured effluent parameters exceeded the EPA (Ghana) guideline indicating that the plant‟s current state of treatment for disposal of spent caustic is not adequate. Acid neutralization and Wet Air Oxidation were used to treat the spent caustic. The parameters showed high removal efficiency between 82% and 99%. It is therefore recommended that the spent caustic be neutralized and subjected to wet air oxidation (WAO) to improve on the final effluent wastewater quality. Also desludging of the spent caustic tank must be done as soon as possible in order to improve on the quality of the final effluent that is discharged into the environment.|
|Description: ||A Thesis submitted to
The Department of Materials Engineering,
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE, July 2013|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Engineering|
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