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|Title: ||Waste to Energy: Comparison of the Quantity and Quality of Biogas Produced From Fruit Waste and Slurries Prepared with Slaughter and Human Wastes|
|Authors: ||Amenorfe, Joshua Bright|
|Issue Date: ||19-May-2013|
|Abstract: ||Waste management has become one of the major challenges facing today’s world cities. The waste
management problem is more pronounced in the cities of developing countries especially those of the
Sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana. The high rate of rural-urban migration coupled with weak
enforcement of settlement laws have led to the springing up of slums in most parts of these cities.
However, the low commitment of city authorities to enforce environmental laws coupled with lack of
funds has worsened the waste management challenges which are more pronounced in slums.
Meanwhile, the current technologies (open-dumping and disposal into the ocean) employed in
managing the wastes generated in these cities are non-sustainable and highly detrimental to the
environment. Also, the high organic fraction content of wastes generated in the developing countries
coupled with high capital cost make it difficult to treat wastes with the technologies used by the
developed countries. There is therefore the need to search for and employ organic waste treatment
technology that is sustainable and thus best fitting for developing countries. This is the anaerobic
digestion process in which waste is converted to energy (in the form of biogas) and bio-fertilizer.
This study was conducted to determine the amount of biogas (digester-specific and substrate-specific
biogas production) and quality of biogas that will be produced by fruit wastes and slurries prepared
with slaughter waste and human waste.The study was also to determine the slurry that will be suitable
for optimum commercial biogas production.
A composite of mango, pineapple and papaw wastes was digested in a 450 m3 digester at Adeiso while
four different slurries (S1 to S4) prepared with varying proportions of slaughter and human wastes were
digested anaerobically in two 8 m3 fixed-dome (WASAZA design) digesters built at GIDA site in
Ashaiman. The data obtained were analyzed with the 2007 version of Microsoft Excel.
Results obtained showedthatthe digester-specific biogas production of slurries S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5
produced are0.167, 0.120, 0.278, 0.325 and 0.723 m3 biogas/m3 digester volume/dayrespectively while
the substrate-specific biogas production was 0.121, 0.344, 0.432, 0.327 and 0.270 m3 biogas/kg
ODM/day respectively. The daily average methane (CH4) produced by the slurries range from 52 to 66
% biogas by volume while their carbon dioxide (CO2) production was from an average value of 32 to
38 % biogas by volume. Also, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) produced by the slurries was from an average
value of 216 ppm to 625 ppm.
Slurry prepared with about 50%HW and 50%SW was found to be the most suitable for optimum
commercial biogas production.|
|Description: ||A Thesis submitted to the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agro-Environmental Engineering, May-2013|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Engineering|
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