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|Title: ||Efficient replication of the novel human betacoronavirus EMC on primary human epithelium highlights it zoonotic potential|
|Authors: ||Kindler, Eveline|
Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.
Hamming, Ole J.
Fouchier, Ron A. M.
Müller, Marcel A.
|Issue Date: ||2013|
|Citation: ||MBio 2013 Jan-Feb; 4(1)|
|Abstract: ||The recent emergence of a novel human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC) in the Middle East raised considerable concerns, as it is associated with severe acute pneumonia, renal failure, and fatal outcome and thus resembles the clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) observed in 2002 and 2003. Like SARS-CoV, HCoV-EMC is of zoonotic origin and closely related to bat coronaviruses. The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry point and primary target tissue for respiratory viruses and is highly relevant for assessing the zoonotic potential of emerging respiratory viruses, such as HCoV-EMC. Here, we show that pseudostratified HAE cultures derived from different donors are highly permissive to HCoV-EMC infection, and by using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and RNAseq data, we experimentally determined the identity of seven HCoV-EMC subgenomic mRNAs. Although the HAE cells were readily responsive to type I and type III interferon (IFN), we observed neither a pronounced inflammatory cytokine nor any detectable IFN responses following HCoV-EMC, SARS-CoV, or HCoV-229E infection, suggesting that innate immune evasion mechanisms and putative IFN antagonists of HCoV-EMC are operational in the new host. Importantly, however, we demonstrate that both type I and type III IFN can efficiently reduce HCoV-EMC replication in HAE cultures, providing a possible treatment option in cases of suspected HCoV-EMC infection.|
|Description: ||Article published in MBio Jan-Feb 2014; 4(1): e00611-12.
Published online Feb 19, 2013. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00611-12. Also available at http://mbio.asm.org/content/4/1/e00611-12|
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