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|Title: ||Refractive Error and Visual Impairment in Private School Children in Ghana|
|Authors: ||Kumah, Ben D.|
Koomson, Nana Ya
|Issue Date: ||2013|
|Publisher: ||Optometry and Vision Science|
|Citation: ||Optometry and Vision Science, VOL. 90, NO. 12, PP. 1456Y1461|
|Abstract: ||Purpose. To assess the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in private school children in Ghana.
Methods. A random selection of geographically defined classes in clusters was used to identify a sample of school children
aged 12 to 15 years in the Ashanti Region. Children in 60 clusters were enumerated and examined in classrooms. The
examination included visual acuity, retinoscopy, autorefraction under cycloplegia, and examination of anterior segment,
media, and fundus. For quality assurance, a random sample of children with reduced and normal vision were selected and
Results. A total of 2454 children attending 53 private schools were enumerated, and of these, 2435 (99.2%) were examined.
Prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 3.7, 3.5,
and 0.4%, respectively. Refractive error was the cause of reduced vision in 71.7% of 152 eyes, amblyopia in 9.9%,
retinal disorders in 5.9%, and corneal opacity in 4.6%. Exterior and anterior segment abnormalities occurred in 43 (1.8%)
children. Myopia (at least j0.50 D) in one or both eyes was present in 3.2% of children when measured with retinoscopy
and in 3.4% measured with autorefraction. Myopia was not significantly associated with gender (P = 0.82). Hyperopia
(+2.00 D or more) in at least one eye was present in 0.3% of children with retinoscopy and autorefraction.
Conclusions. The prevalence of reduced vision in Ghanaian private school children due to uncorrected refractive error
was low. However, the prevalence of amblyopia, retinal disorders, and corneal opacities indicate the need for early
|Description: ||Article published in Optometry and Vision Science, 2013.|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Science|
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