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|Title: ||Faecal sludge management: the case of Madina|
|Authors: ||Antwi-Agyei, Prince|
|Issue Date: ||11-Aug-2009|
|Abstract: ||This study was carried out to determine the management arrangements in place for faecal sludge at Madina in the Ga East Municipality of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.
Five (5) main toilet technologies were identified at the household level in the town: Water Closet (WC) with septic tanks - 47%, Kumasi Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines (KVIP) - 9%, Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines (VIP) - 14%, Pit Latrines - 27% and bucket/pan latrines - 3%.
Results showed that 65% of the people owned and used household toilets (63.1% of these toilets were improved toilet facilities and not shared) and 23% used public toilets (shared toilet facilities) in Madina. Eleven percent (11%) of the respondents practiced open defaecation with 1% practising defaecation in polythene bags. Excreta from KVIP and WC with septic tanks were collected and sent for treatment using a waste stabilisation pond. The excreta from the bucket/pan latrines, pit latrines
and VIPs were collected and transported manually and discharged untreated into open
drains, in the bush or in rivers.
The average household spends 8.3% of its annual income on faecal sludge management. Cost recovery mechanisms adopted by the Assembly and commercial toilet operators were user charges from public. However this was not adequate for proper operation and maintenance of the facilities. Schools could not afford the cost of operation and maintenance of their toilets.
Thirty-Two percent and Sixty-Five percent of the respondents were satisfied and not satisfied respectively with the faecal sludge management arrangements in place. The major problem for effective management of faecal sludge was weak enforcement of sanitation bye-laws and regulatory framework.
It is recommended that household latrines should be encouraged. Sanitation bye-laws in the community should be enforced. There should be an integrated approach of stakeholders' participation in both the planning and implementation stages of all faecal sludge management service delivery. Higher priority should be given to faecal sludge management. All public toilet operators should be trained for effective operation and maintenance of the toilets. The performance of the treatment plant should be evaluated for possible reuse and recycling of accumulated sludge. |
|Description: ||A Thesis Submitted to the Board of Graduate Studies of KNUST in partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of the Degree of
Master of Science In
Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation, 2009|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Engineering|
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