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Title: Effect of the ethanol seed extract of Picralima Nitida (STAPF) TH. &H. DURAND) on cough and its complications
Authors: Dapaah, Gabriel
Issue Date: 1-Nov-2016
Abstract: Seed extracts of Picralima nitida are used by some local folks in the management of cough. Previous reports concerning the pharmacological activities of the plants support such claim. Also chronic idiopathic cough leads to worrisome complications like pain and anxiety. The experiment therefore aimed at investigating primarily the effect of the ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida (PNE) on cough, its mode of action as well as the anxiolytic and analgesic effects after the secondary metabolites and safety profile had been investigated. The secondary metabolites present, and safety profile of PNE (10-2000 mg/kg) was ascertained by preliminary phytochemical screening and Irwin’s test respectively. Percentage reduction in cough count and percentage increase in latency of cough offered by the extract was established by the Citric acid-induced cough model in which guinea pigs were treated with 100-500 mg/kg PNE or reference drug, dihydrocodeine. The expectorant properties of PNE (100-1000 mg/kg) was determined using the tracheal phenol red secretion, with ammonium chloride as a reference medication. The bronchodilator; muco-suppressant and mast cell stabilization effects of PNE (100-500 mg/kg) were ascertained using acetylcholine and histamine-induced bronchoconstriction models; ammonium chloride-induced (5 mg/kg; p.o) phenol red (500 mg/kg, i.p) secretion in mice; compound 48/80-induced (1 μg)mesenteric mast cell degranulation assay respectively. PNE’s (1-50 mg/ml) antibacterial potential was ascertained on S. aureus, S. pneumonia, S.typhi, E. coli and K. pneumonia by the agar plate diffusion method and its antioxidant potential (0.01-0.3 mg/ml) by the DPPH free radical scavenging method. Percentage maximal possible analgesic effect in a tail flick test, and the total nociceptive score in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, after treatment of mice with PNE (100-500 mg/kg), diclofenac (10-100 mg/kg), and morphine (1-10 mg/kg) were also estimated. Finally, the anxiolytic effect of PNE (100-500 mg/kg) was determined using the open field and the elevated plus maze in mice. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. PNE (10-500 mg/kg) did not show any extract-related physical, pharmacological, and CNS toxicities; sedation was observed at doses 1000-2000 mg/kg. No mortality was recorded. PNE showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in cough count, and increased (P ≤ 0.01) cough latency. PNE (1000 mg/kg) enhanced (P ≤ 0.05) tracheal phenol red secretion as an indication of its expectorant activity. The extract inhibited both acetylcholine and Histamine-induced bronchoconstriction (P ≤ 0.05). PNE (100-500 mg/kg) and Sodium cromoglycate (100 mg/kg) reduced (P ≤ 0.05 - 0.001) tracheal phenol red secretion. The extract (100-500 µg/ml) dose-dependently (P ≤ 0.05 - 0.0001) stabilized mast cell. PNE (10-50 mg/ml) had significant (P≤0.05), activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Staphylococcus aureus (minimum zone of inhibition 13.0±0.00 mm; maximum: 22.3±0.88 mm). PNE showed antioxidant effect as it enhanced 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging effect (EC 50= 6.53 ×10-2 mg/ml).PNE (100-500 mg/kg) just like Diazepam (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) increased open arm activities in the elevated plus maze (P≤0.05) as well as central zone exploration (P≤0.05) in the open field test. PNE (100–500 mg/kg) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and dose dependently increased tail withdrawal latencies, and nociceptive score. PNE has LD50> 2000 mg/kg. It has an antitussive effect as well as an expectorant effect which occurs at a higher dose. It exhibits the antitussive effect through bronchodilator, mucus suppressant, mast cell stabilizing, antioxidant, anxiolytic and antibacterial effects. PNE will be effective against complications of idiopathic chronic cough like anxiety and pain.
Description: A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in The Department of Pharmacology, 2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/9454
Appears in Collections:College of Health Sciences

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