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Soil carbon stock and nutrient characteristics of Senna siamea grove in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana
(De Gruyter, 2020-06)
We report soil carbon stock (SCS) and nutrient characteristics of a pure stand of Senna siamea grove in comparison with adjacent cropland using t-test. This study was conducted in 2018 at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. Soil sampling up to 50 cm depth was carried out from five subplots in each ecosystem. The SCS of the grove at 0–15 cm depth was over 100% greater (30.78 Mg/ha) than that of the cropland (15.16 Mg/ha). Soil pH and total N content of the grove were 5.75 ± 1.22 and 0.10 ± 0.03% in the topsoil (0–15 cm) and 5.52 ± 0.80, 0.06 ± 0.01% and 5.03 ± 1.22, 0.04 ± 0.01% in the 15–30 and 30–50 cm depths, respectively. Although these values were greater in the grove than the cropland, the available phosphorus content was 3–4 fold greater in the latter soil. The two ecosystems affected soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents significantly (p < 0.05) only in the topsoil, but had a significant influence on soil available phosphorus in both the topsoil and the subsoil. Sand content of the grove seemed to explain greater variability in its SCS (R2 = 0.81) than clay content. The greater SCS of the Senna grove demonstrates its role in soil carbon storage in tropical climate in the era of climate change.
Legume-rhizobium specificity effect on nodulation, biomass production and partitioning of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)
Greenhouse and multi-location experiments were conducted for two consecutive years to investigate the effects of rhizobium on nodulation, biomass production and partitioning of faba bean. Split-plot in randomized complete block design was used for field experiments. Treatments consisted of six rhizobium strains and three faba bean varieties. Peat carrier-based inoculant of each strain was applied at the rate of 10 g kg−1 seed. Non-inoculated plants without N fertilizer and with N fertilizer served as –N and + N controls, respectively. Data on nodulation, shoot dry weight and root dry weight were collected and analyzed. Inoculation of rhizobium significantly increased nodulation of faba bean under greenhouse and field conditions. Location x strain x variety interaction had significant effects on nodulation, dry matter production and partitioning. Rhizobium inoculation increased nodulation, shoot and root dry weights of faba bean across locations. For example, inoculation with rhizobium strains NSFBR-15 and NSFBR-12 to variety Moti resulted in 206.9 and 99.3% shoot dry weight increase at Abala Gase and Hankomolicha, respectively and 133.3 and 70.7% root dry weight increase on the same variety at the same sites, respectively. Nodulation and biomass production depend on the compatibility between faba bean genotype and rhizobium strain and its interaction with soil bio-physical conditions.
Evaluating Service Quality in Automobile Firms in Ghana: a Case Study of Vodi Technik Motors Ltd (VTML)
Service quality is the major driving force for business sustainability in today's competitive global market place, it is recognized that after sales service, high quality is essential for the success of any automobile firm, when other factors have been considered, it leads to customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and high profitability, it is often said that the salesman sells one vehicle and the workshop sells (after sales service) the rest, therefore a key strategy for customer focused is to measure, monitor and evaluate customer satisfaction. The study therefore aimed at finding out, the factors that account for customer dissatisfaction, the level and nature of after sale service quality in automobile firms in Ghana, the determinants of customer-perceived service quality and to make recommendations to improve service quality in automobile industry in Ghana. Customers perceive service quality mainly in the moment of interaction with the service provider. Thus for the quality management of services, it is important to understand which service encounter the customer perceives as positive and which is negative. Ofi the basis of this understanding the physical environment of the service must be customer friendly. Customer kindness, that is "the front office personnel" approach to the customer and his problems, regardless of the service delivered; is the only factor to have significant relationship with future car servicing intentions, future car purchase intentions, and word- of-month recommendations.
Elevated adaptive immune responses are associated with latent infections of wuchereria bancrofti
In order to guarantee the fulfillment of their complex lifecycle, adult filarial nematodes release millions of microfilariae (MF), which are taken up by mosquito vectors. The current strategy to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem focuses upon interrupting this transmission through annual mass drug administration (MDA). It remains unclear however, how many rounds of MDA are required to achieve low enough levels of MF to cease transmission. Interestingly, with the development of further diagnostic tools a relatively neglected cohort of asymptomatic (non-lymphedema) amicrofilaremic (latent) individuals has become apparent. Indeed, epidemiological studies have suggested that there are equal numbers of patent (MF+) and latent individuals. Since the latter represent a roadblock for transmission, we studied differences in immune responses of infected asymptomatic male individuals (n = 159) presenting either patent (n = 92 MF+) or latent (n = 67 MF2) manifestations of Wuchereria bancrofti. These individuals were selected on the basis of MF, circulating filarial antigen in plasma and detectable worm nests. Immunological profiles of either Th1/Th17, Th2, regulatory or innate responses were determined after stimulation of freshly isolated PBMCs with either filarial-specific extract or bystander stimuli. In addition, levels of total and filarial-specific antibodies, both IgG subclasses and IgE, were ascertained from plasma. Results from these individuals were compared with those from 22 healthy volunteers from the same endemic area. Interestingly, we observed that in contrast to MF+ patients, latent infected individuals had lower numbers of worm nests and increased adaptive immune responses including antigen-specific IL-5. These data highlight the immunosuppressive status of MF+ individuals, regardless of age or clinical hydrocele and reveal immunological profiles associated with latency and immune-mediated suppression of parasite transmission.