Institutional Repository of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

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Recent Submissions

Exploring street graphics: Strategies and challenges for city branding in Kumasi, Ghana
(Taylor and Francis, 2023) Anane-Antwi, Eric; Nunoo, Francis Kofi Nimo; Marful, Alexander Boakye; Duah, Daniel Yaw Addai;;;
Street graphics are the main feature of urban areas providing opportunities for advertising, wayfinding, visual stimulation, and other activities while adding to the quality of the urban area. Street graphics can potentially affect a city’s overall brand and appeal. Many cities are experiencing visual pollution as a byproduct of unregulated street graphics. Due to its unique categorisation as a historical and commercial centre, Kumasi, the second largest city in Ghana, provided the opportunity to investigate the use of street graphics for branding. The study through a constructivist-interpretive perspective approach, utilised visual survey and philology to gather data and analyse the street’s graphic composition and establish the reasons for its presence. It became obvious through the results of the study that the clatter of the street graphics has affected the process of identifying and agreeing upon a relevant set of city brand attributes Kumasi require. The mixture of street graphics which is strongly skewed towards Funerals, Religious programs, and Herbal Medicine, suggest that Kumasi may want to be identified with that but that is not the core objective of the City of Greater Kumasi Area. Kumasi does not seem to have a clear identity, although it is home to wonderful tangible and intangible cultural heritages (the Golden Stool and the Ashanti Kingdom). Although the city has seen significant structural development and modernization without any direction for identity, the managers of the city have not sought to define the identity of the city, and the street graphics have also compounded the identity crisis. An assessment criterion was developed to compare the various street graphics on the streets with recommendations regarding the type of street graphics employed and their overall effect on the host street that can have significant impact on its branding.
(Emerald Publishing, 2022) Acquah, Godwin Kojo Kumi;
Purpose – This study aims to explore the impact of the indoor environment on recovery from COVID-19 infections. Extant literature on the impact of the four key themes of the indoor environment (indoor air quality, indoor thermal quality, daylighting and visual comfort, and acoustic comfort) on COVID-19 infection and recovery rates were reviewed. Design/methodology/approach – Data collection for this study was based on extant literature within the Scopus database and scoped to a time frame of 2020–2021 because the topical issue of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and its impact on COVID-19 arose in the wake of the pandemic. In total, 224 documents were systematically desk reviewed from various journals. Findings – The study identified that air pollutants such as PM2.5 and PM10 as well as air conditioned places, low ambient temperatures, poor ventilation and no views of the outdoor environment were deteriorating factors for COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, proper ventilation, the use of air cleaners, views of the outdoor environment and allowance for ample daylighting were improvement factors for COVID-19 patients. The inter-relationship of the various concepts was presented in an ontology chart. Practical implications – As COVID-19 still exists and keeps evolving, this study provides suggestions to industry professionals, especially health-care Facility Managers, to create a post-pandemic environment focusing on the IEQ and finding long-term and reliable solutions for the well-being of occupants. Adaptability is crucial. New, creative technology solutions are being introduced daily, but it is up to the facility managers and health-care professionals to analyse and specify the most cost- and outcome-effective technologies for their facility. Originality/value – The study brought to light the pivotal role of the indoor environment on the health and well-being of occupants, particularly in the contraction, spread, prevention and control of infectious diseases such as COVID-19.
Theoretical and experimental insight into the construction of FTO/NiSe2/ BiVO4 photoanode towards an efficient charge separation for the degradation of pharmaceuticals in water
(Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2023-10) Yusuf, Tunde Lewis; Ogundare, Segun Ajibola; Opoku, Francis; Arotiba, Omotayo A.; Mabuba, Nonhlagabezo; 0000-0002-8308-9113
The increasing contamination of water bodies by pharmaceuticals has become a major environmental concern, with traditional treatment methods often proving ineffective. In this manuscript, we present a theoretical and experimental investigation into the construction of an S-scheme FTO/NiSe2/BiVO4 (NSB) photoanode toward the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical pollutants in water. The study focuses on the optimization of the photoanode structure to significantly restrain charge recombination and maximize photoelectrocatalytic performance. The photoanode achieves higher efficiency (76%) in comparison with the pristine FTO/BiVO4 (BVO) (43%) and FTO/NiSe2 (NS) (17%) for the PEC degradation of ciprofloxacin. This can be attributed to the improved band gap (1.92 eV), low charge transfer resistance (9.6 Ω), reduced flat band potential (0.24 V) and higher charge density (4.86 × 1017 cm–1 ) resulting from synergic interaction at the interface of the semiconductor resulting to fast transition of the charge and restraining of recombination of the charge carriers. The accumulation of the electrons majorly takes place at the NS layer as displayed by the theoretical modeling of the charge density difference. This suggests a transition of electrons from BVO to NS. The band offset as well as the built-in electric field across the NSB interface limit the recombination of the photoinduced carriers. The mechanism including the functions of different reactive species is studied, which reveals that the holes mostly dominate the degradation process. Based on density functional theory, active species capture experiment, and photoelectrochemical detection, the synthesized NSB photocatalyst conforms to an S-scheme heterojunction charge transfer mechanism. We consider the composite suitable for the treatment of water contaminated with pharmaceutical waste.
Covid-19 Vaccine Acceptance and Risk Perception in Ghana: Insights from A Study on Tertiary-Level Students and Surrounding Residents in Kumasi
(Journal of Science and Technology, 2024) Darko, Samuel Nkansah; Boahen, Kennedy Gyau; Okyere, Portia Boakye; Addo, Christopher N. K.; Ameyaw, Afuaa Janet; Adjei, Emmanuel; Hayford, Manuella; Anhwere, Naomi Efua; Kwarteng, Sandra Abankwa
The introduction of COVID-19 vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa has been met with mixed feelings. In Ghana, several concerns were raised about the potency and side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine. We investigated the acceptance and risk perception of students on the KNUST campus and the residents of the surrounding communities to assess the risk factors that will influence heir willingness or unwillingness to be vaccinated in the government’s quest to get its citizens vaccinated. A well-structured questionnaire was administered online and through face-toface interviews to survey 3332 respondents between the periods of March 15 and May 28, 2021. Chi-square analysis was used to show the association between the sociodemographic characteristics and, the acceptance and risk perception of the COVID-19 vaccine. Logistic regression analysis was used to explain the relationship between the acceptance and risk perception of the COVID-19 vaccine and the various socio-demographic characteristics. Out of 3323 respondents, 1,703 (45.23%) were hesitant whiles 64.39% of 3311 indicated they would accept being vaccinated. In a multivariate analysis, the age range of 31 to 40 years, being male, having secondary level education, and having a previous vaccination post-childhood immunization increased the likelihood of vaccine acceptance. More than half of the students of KNUST and inhabitants around the campus are likely to acceptant the COVID-19 vaccine. However, adequate and timely information is needed to educate prospective vaccine recipients with tertiary level education to better the level of acceptance and address misinformation about vaccines and promote individual and population-level benefits of vaccination
Cutting resistance assessment for three varieties of cassava roots
(Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineering, 2023-11-27) Amoah, Francis; Asante, Eric Amoah; Amuaku, Randy; Bobobee, Emmanuel Yaovi Hunnuor
In this study, a model has been developed to assess the peel and root resistance to cutting. The evaluation was done with knife thicknesses of 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm using Duade kpakpa, Dudze and Sika bankye cassava varieties as experimental samples for three postharvest delays. The knife penetrated the tuber at 50 mm, 100 mm and 150 mm away from the proximal end. An average peel thickness obtained was in the range of 1.81 mm – 3.01 mm. The average diameters recorded ranged from 52.52 mm to 60.40 mm. The cutting resistance assessed for the Duade kpakpa, Sika bankye and Dudze cassava peels were 44.85 N, 50.01 N and 53.53 N, respectively with no significant differences (p < 0.05). The penetration resistance of the tuber decreased with increasing postharvest delay and increased with increasing knife thickness. The effect of the treatments on the response variables evaluated by factorial analysis showed that significant differences generally decrease with increasing interaction. Comparing the results, cutting resistances of 229.02 N, 223.09 N and 204.43 N in maximum were obtained for the Dudze, Sika bankye and Duade kpakpa cassava roots, respectively. The quantitative assessment by the PLSR model under the knife thicknesses (R2 = 0.9689; RMSE = 2.1020) was significantly better than the PLSR model under postharvest delay (R2 = 0.7845; RMSE = 4.0183). The technique employed in assessing the cutting resistance emphasized the cultivar differences and provided a measuring sequence and outstanding quantitative analysis.
Development and evaluation of agro-waste composite for sound insulation
(Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineering, 2023-11-30) Amuaku, Randy; Amanor, Godwin K.; Adu-Gyamfi, Fehrs; Asante, Eric Amoah; Kweitsu, Eric; Opare, Samuel
The palm kernel shell is a by-product of palm kernel oil production and is commonly used in the natural biomass energy industry. Coconut husk fibre is extracted from the coconut fruit. To find a use for palm kernel shells and coconut husk fibre, a composite insulator plate was developed by the addition of a binder through a process of grinding, sieving, mixing, heating, hot-pressing and cooling in a mould. An Ahuja speaker AU60 was fixed at one end of a baffled tube and a sound level meter was placed 2 m away from the output to record sound transmission loss at 5s intervals for twenty minutes. The plates of 3, 4, 5, and, 6 mm thickness were fixed in the baffled tube at a distance of 475 mm away from the input one after the other to filter the input sound. The results showed that the setup without a composite insulator recorded the highest noise of 226.8 dB. The average recorded sound transmitted loss was 185.40, 72.47, 74.54, 76.06, and 82.85 dB for no insulator, 3, 4, 5 and, 6 mm composite insulators respectively. The introduction of the 3, 4, 5, and, 6 mm thickness composite insulators resulted in 55.3 %, 59.0 %, 59.8 % and 60.9 % reduction in noise level. The application of agro-waste composite material as a sound insulator in a baffled tube has proven to be effective by 58.7 % on average. The study has confirmed that agro-waste materials can be used in sound insulation applications.
Stochastic Optimal Selection and Analysis of Allowable Photovoltaic Penetration Level for Grid-Connected Systems Using a Hybrid NSGAII-MOPSO and Monte Carlo Method
(International Journal of Photoenergy, 2023) Abubakar, Ali; Borkor, Reindorf Nartey; Amoako-Yirenkyi, Peter; 0000-0002-5721-4638
Generally, the main focus of the grid-linked photovoltaic systems is to scale up the photovoltaic penetration level to ensure full electricity consumption coverage. However, due to the stochasticity and nondispatchable nature of its generation, significant adverse impacts such as power overloading, voltage, harmonics, current, and frequency instabilities on the utility grid arise. These impacts vary in severity as a function of the degree of penetration level of the photovoltaic system. Thus, the design problem involves optimizing the two conflicting objectives in the presence of uncertainty without violating the grid’s operational limitations. Nevertheless, existing studies avoid the technical impact and scalarize the conflicting stochastic objectives into a single stochastic objective to lessen the degree of complexity of the problem. This study proposes a stochastic multiobjective methodology to decide on the optimum allowable photovoltaic penetration level for an electricity grid system at an optimum cost without violating the system’s operational constraints. Five cutting-edge multiobjective optimization algorithms were implemented and compared using hypervolume metric, execution time, and nonparametric statistical analysis to obtain a quality solution. The results indicated that a Hybrid NSGAII-MOPSO had better convergence, diversity, and execution time capacity to handle the complex problem. The analysis of the obtained optimal solution shows that a practical design methodology could accurately decide the maximum allowable photovoltaic penetration level to match up the energy demand of any grid-linked system at a minimum cost without collapsing the grid’s operational limitations even under fluctuating weather conditions. Comparatively, the stochastic approach enables the development of a more sustainable and affordable grid-connected system.