Browsing by Author "Akinyemi, Rufus"
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- ItemDifferential Impact of Risk Factors on Stroke Occurrence Among Men Versus Women in West Africa The SIREN Study(Stroke, 2019) Akpalu, Albert; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Iheonye, Henry; Akinyemi, Rufus; Akpa, Onoja...et.al.Background and Purpose—The interplay between sex and the dominant risk factors for stroke occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa has not been clearly delineated. We compared the effect sizes of risk factors of stroke by sex among West Africans. Methods—SIREN study (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Networks) is a case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases were adults aged >18 years with computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stroke, and controls were age- and sex-matched stroke-free adults. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed using validated tools. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and reported risk factor specific and composite population attributable risks with 95% CIs. Results—Of the 2118 stroke cases, 1193 (56.3%) were males. The mean±SD age of males was 58.1±13.2 versus 60.15±14.53 years among females. Shared modifiable risk factors for stroke with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) among females versus males, respectively, were hypertension [29.95 (12.49–71.77) versus 16.1 0(9.19–28.19)], dyslipidemia [2.08 (1.42–3.06) versus 1.83 (1.29–2.59)], diabetes mellitus [3.18 (2.11–4.78) versus 2.19 (1.53–3.15)], stress [2.34 (1.48–3.67) versus 1.61 (1.07–2.43)], and low consumption of green leafy vegetables [2.92 (1.89–4.50) versus 2.00 (1.33–3.00)]. However, salt intake and income were significantly different between males and females. Six modifiable factors had a combined population attributable risk of 99.1% (98.3%–99.6%) among females with 9 factors accounting for 97.2% (94.9%–98.7%) among males. Hemorrhagic stroke was more common among males (36.0%) than among females (27.6%), but stroke was less severe among males than females. Conclusions—Overall, risk factors for stroke occurrence are commonly shared by both sexes in West Africa favoring concerted interventions for stroke prevention in the region.
- ItemMultilingual Validation of the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status in West Africa(Stroke, 2016-01) Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Akinyemi, Rufus; Owolabi, Lukman; Obiako, Reginald; Akpa, Onoja; Boa-Antwi, Nana; Appiah, Lambert Tetteh...et.alBackground and Purpose—The Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS), a method for verifying stroke-free status in participants of clinical, epidemiological, and genetic studies, has not been validated in low-income settings where populations have limited knowledge of stroke symptoms. We aimed to validate QVSFS in 3 languages, Yoruba, Hausa and Akan, for ascertainment of stroke-free status of control subjects enrolled in an on-going stroke epidemiological study in West Africa. Methods—Data were collected using a cross-sectional study design where 384 participants were consecutively recruited from neurology and general medicine clinics of 5 tertiary referral hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana. Ascertainment of stroke status was by neurologists using structured neurological examination, review of case records, and neuroimaging (gold standard). Relative performance of QVSFS without and with pictures of stroke symptoms (pictograms) was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Results—The overall median age of the study participants was 54 years and 48.4% were males. Of 165 stroke cases identified by gold standard, 98% were determined to have had stroke, whereas of 219 without stroke 87% were determined to be stroke-free by QVSFS. Negative predictive value of the QVSFS across the 3 languages was 0.97 (range, 0.93–1.00), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 0.98, 0.82, and 0.80, respectively. Agreement between the questionnaire with and without the pictogram was excellent/strong with Cohen k=0.92. Conclusions—QVSFS is a valid tool for verifying stroke-free status across culturally diverse populations in West
- ItemStroke Among Young West Africans Evidence From the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) Large Multisite Case–Control Study(Stroke, 2018) Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Wahab, Kolawole; Akinyemi, Rufus; Akpalu, Albert...et.al.Background and Purpose—Stroke in lower and middle-income countries affects a young and productive age group. Data on factors associated with stroke in the young are sorely lacking from lower and middle-income countries. Our objective is to characterize the nature of stroke and its risk factors among young West Africans aged <50 years old. Methods—The SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a multicenter, case–control study involving 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases included adults aged ≥18 years with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed stroke. Controls were age-and gender-matched stroke-free adults recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and population attributable risks with 95% confidence intervals. Results—Five hundred fifteen (24.3%) out of 2118 cases enrolled were <50 years old. Among subjects <50 years old, hemorrhagic stroke proportion was 270 (52.5%) versus 245 (47.5%) for ischemic strokes. Etiologic subtypes of ischemic strokes included large artery atherosclerosis (40.0%), small vessel disease (28.6%), cardioembolism (11.0%), and undetermined (20.4%). Hypertension (91.7%), structural lesions (3.4%), and others (4.9%) were causally associated with hemorrhagic stroke. Six topmost modifiable factors associated with stroke in descending order of population attributable risk (95% confidence interval) were hypertension: 88.7% (82.5%–94.8%), dyslipidemia: 48.2% (30.6%–65.9%), diabetes mellitus: 22.6% (18.7%–26.5%), low green vegetable consumption: 18.2% (−6.8%–43.2%), stress: 14.5% (4.9%–24.1%), and cardiac disease: 8.4% (5.8%–11.1%). Conclusions—The high and rising burden of stroke among young Africans should be curtailed via aggressive, populationwide vascular risk factor control.
- ItemStroke in Indigenous Africans, African Americans, and European Americans Interplay of Racial and Geographic Factors(Stroke, 2017) Owolabi, Mayowa; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Howard, Virginia J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Akinyemi, Rufus; Bennett, Aleena; Armstrong, Kevin; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Akpalu, Albert...et.al.Background and Purpose—The relative contributions of racial and geographic factors to higher risk of stroke in people of African ancestry have not been unraveled. We compared stroke type and contributions of vascular risk factors among indigenous Africans (IA), African Americans (AA), and European Americans (EA). Methods—SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a large multinational case–control study in West Africa—the ancestral home of 71% AA—whereas REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) is a cohort study including AA and EA in the United States. Using harmonized assessments and standard definitions, we compared data on stroke type and established risk factors for stroke in acute stroke cases aged ≥55 years in both studies. Results—There were 811 IA, 452 AA, and 665 EA stroke subjects, with mean age of 68.0±9.3, 73.0±8.3, and 76.0±8.3 years, respectively (P<0.0001). Hemorrhagic stroke was more frequent among IA (27%) compared with AA (8%) and EA (5.4%; P<0.001). Lacunar strokes were more prevalent in IA (47.1%), followed by AA (35.1%) and then EA (21.0%; P<0.0001). The frequency of hypertension in decreasing order was IA (92.8%), followed by AA (82.5%) and then EA (64.2%; P<0.0001) and similarly for diabetes mellitus IA (38.3%), AA (36.8%), and EA (21.0%; P<0.0001). Premorbid sedentary lifestyle was similar in AA (37.7%) and EA (34.0%) but lower frequency in IA (8.0%). Conclusions—Environmental risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the higher proportion of ischemic stroke in AA compared with IA, whereas racial factors may contribute to the higher proportion of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among stroke subjects of African ancestry.