Investigation of Dietary Pattern and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Hypertensive Outpatients and Associated Effect on Target Organ Damage

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JUNE, 2017
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Hypertension is a common and major public health problem associated with metabolic syndrome, causing complications including cardiovascular diseases, kidney problems and liver damages. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hypertensive outpatients and its associated effect on target organ damage. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 hypertensive outpatients and 50 non-hypertensives. Questionnaire was administered to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history and physical activity. The food frequency questionnaire was used to also solicit information on past dietary patterns. Anthropometric data including weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, body fat, visceral fat and resting metabolic rate were measured. Biochemical data including fasting blood glucose, lipids profile, coronary risk, serum urea, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and serum bilirubin were also determined. Generally, there was more female (85.5%) than male (14.5%) in the study, in the ratio 6:1. Metabolic syndrome were significantly prevalent among hypertensive group (70.0%) than non-hypertensive group (10.0%, p= 0.000). Overweight and obesity (p=0.000), diabetes p= 0.000), high blood pressure (p= 0.015), abdominal obesity (p= 0.000), high total cholesterol (p= 0.000), high low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p= 0.002) and high coronary risk (p=0.042) were significantly higher among participants with metabolic syndrome. Coronary risk (r= 0.192, p= 0.007) and alanine aminotransferase (r= 0.162, p= 0.023) had weak, significant positive correlation in participants with metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, metabolic syndrome was found prevalent among hypertensive than healthy controls. Also, clusters of metabolic syndrome including prediabetes and diabetes, abdominal obesity, high total cholesterol, high low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly prevalent among hypertensive than non-hypertensive group. Overall, hypertensives were highly at increased risk of heart, kidney and liver damage compared to counterpart non-hypertensives which require intensive evaluation and monitoring of diet and clinical care of these patients.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Philosophy Degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetics