Sanitation Survey of Aboabo and Asawase

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A field survey was conducted to ascertain the extent of improved water and sanitation coverage in two urban slums, in the Asawase constituency of Kumasi. A total of 788 households were randomly selected for household interviews, key informant interviews and health walks. The study revealed adequate levels of improved water coverage of 94% for Aboabo and 92.1% for Asawase. However both communities were beset with extremely poor waste management practices. Large volumes of waste were observed in almost every open space with the few poorly maintained gutters being clogged by waste. Improved toilet facilities coverage was extremely low (6.9% for Aboabo and 2.8% for Asawase) leading to an average number (58.3% and 58% respectively) of households patronizing the few public toilet facilities in the communities. Majority of the private toilets were also shared by more than three households (83.3% - Aboabo and 91.7% - Asawase). High levels of indiscriminate disposal of children’s excreta on open plots, streets, gutters and dump sites were observed as well as the practice of open defecation. Due to this, high levels of water related diseases, particularly diarrhoea (34.7% and 29.4% respectively) were high in children under five years in both communities. The study helps in predicting now and in future population and solid waste generation dynamics and the level of sanitation coverage needed for the MDG 7, target 10 to be met. It also reveals the various unsatisfactory personal, domestic and environmental hygiene practices, contributing to various diseases in the communities. These findings could be used by residents and city authorities for planning and effective management of the sanitation sector in order to protect public health and ensure good environmental quality.
A Thesis submitted to the Department of Environmental Science,Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science (Environmental Science)