Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Escherichia Coli Isolates from Three Hospitals In Kumasi

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Nosocomial infections are worrying situations in health care delivery across the world. Every year, millions of people report of contracting one form of nosocomial infections which are difficult to treat due to the level of antibiotic resistance exhibited by these microorganisms. In this study, a total of 600 samples including swabs of door handles, benches, beds, and floors, and waste water from drainages were collected from Tafo, Kumasi-South, and Suntreso Hospitals all in the Kumasi Metropolis between January and June, 2010 and cultured. By morphological and biochemical reactions, 57 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 97 strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, identified and tested for their antibiotic sensitivities using the Kirby-Bauer agar disc diffusion assay against ampicillin (10μg), gentamicin (10μg), ceftriaxone (30μg), ciprofloxazole (5μg), and co-trimoxazole (25μg) on Mueller-Hinton agar. E. coli was present in all the samples while P. aeruginosa was mainly present in samples from the floor, beds, drainages and door handles. All the P. aeruginosa isolates and about 90% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin. For gentamicin, 46% of the P. aeruginosa isolates exhibited resistance while 21% and 33% showed intermediate and sensitive responses respectively. For ciprofloxacin, 36.84% of these isolates were resistant while equal proportions (31.58%) exhibited intermediate and sensitive responses. About 40% of the P. aeruginosa isolates also showed intermediate response to ceftriaxone while 39% and 21% were respectively resistant and sensitive. For gentamicin, many of the resistant P. aeruginosa isolates (34.6%) were obtained from door handle samples while majority of the sensitive isolates (47.4%) came from drainage samples. In the case of ceftriaxone, high proportions of drainage isolates were resistant (45.5%). Almost equal proportions of the drainage sample isolates recorded the various activities to ciprofloxacin: 38.9% sensitive, 38.1% resistant and 33.3% intermediate isolates. The study has also shown that out of 52 E. coli isolates from hospital beddings, 53.85% were resistant to gentamicin, 25% to ceftriaxone and 61.5% to ciprofloxacin. Similarly, out of 21 P. aeruginosa isolates from drainage samples, 28.57% were resistant to gentamicin, 47.62% to ceftriaxone and 28.57% to ciprofloxacin. Out of 97 E. coli isolates, 78(80.41%) were resistant to at least three different classes of antibiotics while 32(56.14%) out of 57 P. aeruginosa isolates were also resistant to at least three different classes of the antibiotics. vii This study has therefore highlighted the presence of antibiotic resistant pathogens in our hospital environments including more especially, hospital beddings. It has also provided data on these resistant pathogens which will be useful in health care policy planning in Ghana and the sub-region at large.
A Thesis submitted to the Department of Pharmaceutics in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) Degree in Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 2011