Studies on the Concentration and Diversity of Airspora in an Apiary at the University for Development Studies- Nyamkpala Campus, Northern Region, Ghana
Fungal species were sampled from the atmosphere around beehives at an apiary at various points from the beehives at various heights above the ground at these points for eight weeks by exposing Petri dishes containing fungal growth media for five minutes. Three nutrient media were used namely: PDA, MEA and SA. Samples were taken at different times of the day to determine diurnal variation in fungal concentration. Eleven different species of fungi were identified from the site of study. The most commonly occurring species was Aspergillus niger (115.31) whiles the least occurring fungi was Trichoderma sp (12.25). There was significant difference between the concentration of fungi around the beehives (0meter) and the concentration distance away (100 meters). The concentration of fungi was more around the beehives than at a distance (100meters) away. Aspergillus niger(58), Aspergillus versicolor(36.69), Curvularia sp.(24..63), Fusarium sp.(20.94), and Mucor(10.15) occurred more frequently at a height of 2m above ground than at 0.5m above ground whiles species such as Aspergillus ocraceous(10.43), Aspergillus tamarii(14.42), Neurospora sp.(31.37) , Penicillium sp.(22.31) , Rhizopus(11.69) and Trichoderma sp(6.15) were more abundant at 0.5m above ground than 2m above ground. With regards to diurnal variation, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Curvularia sp, Fusarium sp, Mucor, Rhizopus and Trichoderma sp. occured more frequently in the evening (5.00pm or 17.00h). Species such as Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus ocraceous , and Neurospora sp. were more common in the morning (7.00am or 7.00h) .There was relatively low abundance of the various species in the afternoon (12.00noon or 12.00h). It is however observable that there vi was no marked variation between the individual numbers of species for the three different times of which sampling were made. The highest fungal counts were made in the evening, followed by morning and then noon. With regards to influence of growth media on fungal concentration, the highest numbers of fungal counts were isolated from PDA, SA and MA respectively.
A thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Science in Environmental Science, 2011