Biochemical and Anthropometric Characterisation of hypertension in Kumasi

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January, 2016
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The surge in prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases like hypertension and chronic kidney disease has been linked with modifiable lifestyle practices and increased body fat. This study sought to evaluate the association between different modifiable lifestyle practices, adiposity indices, biochemical parameters and target cardiac and kidney organ damage among hypertensives in Kumasi. Using a hospital-based case–control study design, 241 Ghanaian indigenes from the Kumasi metropolis were recruited for this study. The case group was made up of, 180 hypertensives and 61 normotensives served as controls. In addition to socio-demographic data, all participants underwent standard haemodynamic, anthropometric, biochemical and cardiac organ damage assessment. In general, the case group presented with a significantly poorer atherogenic lipid profile compared to their counterparts in the control group. Increasing atherogenic dyslipidaemia was more prevalent with the presence of cardiac target organ damage. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) ranged between 13.3% to 16.6% depending on the equation used in estimating the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Chronic kidney disease was significantly higher among self-reported smoker and alcoholic hypertensives. Among the commonly used athropometric measures, a population-specific threshold for waist circumference of >75cm for females and >80cm for male were the best adiposity indices for discriminating hypertension. However significant improvement in prediction was achieved with the use of conicity index (>1.08 female, >1.05 male). The sole reliance on body mass index in the determination of obesity and associatd health risks must be discontinued to incorporate more sensitive anthropometric markers.
A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in the Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences College of Health,