Nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effects of terminalia ivorensis a. chev. ethanolic stem bark extract on sprague dawley rats

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Terminalia ivorensis has been West African ethnomedicine for the management of several diseases. For instance, to treat ulcers, wounds, general body pains, hemorrhoids, diuresis, malaria and yellow fever. In this study, T. ivorensis was assessed for potential nephroprotective and hepatoprotective actions using potassium dichromate and gentamycin as nephrotoxicant and hepatotoxicant respectively in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract (100 – 5000 mg/kg) administered to the rats for 24 hours in an acute toxicity study did not show undesirable effects on the general behavior of rats and no death was recorded. The LD50 was estimated to be above 5000 mg/kg of extract. In the nephroprotective study, administration of potassium dichromate (20 mg/kg; sc) caused elevation of creatinine from the control value of 27.83 μmL/L to 358.70 μmL/L. Urea levels also increased from 5.09 mmol/L to 56.55 mmol/L. Administration of the T. ivorensis extract with the nephrotoxicant reduced the elevated creatinine to 123.70 μmL/L and urea to 27.81 mmol/L at the highest dose of 1000 mg/kg of the extract. The reduced levels of endogenous antioxidants observed with potassium dichromate treatment, was also significantly reversed by T. ivorensis extract. Similar results were obtained with gentamycin as the nephrotoxicant. In the hepatoprotective investigations using gentamycin as hepatotoxicant, T. ivorensis the elevated levels of AST, ALT and GGT from 985.5 U/L to 361.2 U/L, 218.8 U/L to 126.2 U/L and 4.6 U/L to 2.0 U/L respectively. The Histopathological studies confirmed that T. ivorensis extract is nephroprotective and hepatoprotective in rats by a mechanism possibly related to the antioxidant effect of the extract.
A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy In the Department of Pharmacology Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.