Formulation of a weaning food from two varieties of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis and Artocarpus incisus)

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New product development studies were carried out to formulate a weaning food from two varieties of breadfruit available locally, Artocarpus altills and Artocarpus incisus in combination with malted maize and groundnuts. To achieve the desired result of viscosity reduction, a desirable attribute in weaning foods, the maize was malted. Other pretreatments applied to the various ingredients before the formulation were pregelatinisation of the Artocarpus altilis pulp and roasting of the Artocarpus incisus seeds, the malted maize and the groundnuts. Substitutions ranging from 50 to 80% of the breadfruit were combined with the other ingredients. Granulated sugar, full-fat powdered milk and dried powdered carrots were also incorporated into the formula. Physicochemical studies carried out on the ingredients before formulation and on the formulated products included moisture, ash, protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate contents and also water binding capacity, solubility, swelling power, viscosity, gelation and dispersability. From these studies, it was observed that roasting of the ingredients reduced their moisture content considerably, thus serving as an advantage in product development because of an increase in shelf life. It was also observed that the two varieties of breadfruit differed significantly in their protein content. While Artocarpus altilis had protein content of 6.06 to 6.19%, Artocarpus incisus had a protein content of 14.30 to 18.39%. Also, malting the maize reduced its water binding capacity and viscosity while increasing solubility. Sensory evaluation conducted on the formulated products revealed that Product 815, formulated with 50% Artocarpus altilis pulp, 40% malted, roasted maize and 10% roasted groundnuts had the most preferred attributes in terms of aroma, texture, mouthfeel, sweetness, aftertaste and overall acceptability.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Master of Science (M.Sc.) degree in Food Science and Technology, 2005