Electrolyte degumming of crude vegetable oil

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Electrolyte degumming is an emerging procedure which employs the use of electrolytes in the removal of phospholipids present in crude vegetable oil. In this research, Crude soya bean oil (CSBO) was degummed using six factors; electrolyte concentration (0.5-3.0 % w/v), electrolyte-oil ratio (1-5 % v/v), temperature of medium (50 -80 oC), reaction time (30-60 min), agitation speed (150-300 rpm) and the electrolyte combination (KCl-CaCl2; NaCl-MgCl2). Response surface methodology was used to randomize the factors involved in the process, analyze the responses obtained,predict the best-fit regression model and optimize the degumming experiment. A reduced quartic model was obtained as the best model with p<0.05 and lack of fit of 0.88. Statistical analysis revealed linear, quadratic, cubic and quartic interactional effects respectively. Based on the model, the optimum condition was evaluated using sodium and magnesium chloride mixture at a concentration of 2.4 % w/v and electrolyte-oil ratio of 4 % v/v. The condition which was maintained at 67 oC, agitated at 235 rpm for 37 min produced a degummed soya oil of 4 ppm.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2012