Compatibility of Jatropha Curcas in an Agroforestry System
Jatropha curcas is gaining importance as a potential biofuel crop in Ghana. Already skeptics are talking about the impact of the crop on food crops. It is important that the compatibility of J. curcas in agroforestry systems is investigated to provide answers to some of the potential problems being advanced. Experiments were conducted to determine the compatibility of J. curcas on the growth and yield performance of Zea mays. To determine the growth and yield of Z. mays under J. curcas hedgerows, an experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three hedgerow spacings of 2 m x 1 m, 3 m x 1 m, 4 m x 1 m of J. curcas and a control (No hedgerow) was conducted. This was replicated 3 times. The results of the study showed that J. curcas spacing had no significant effect (P ≥ 0.05) on plant height, plant diameter, number of leaves and number of nodes/plant of maize in the first year. In the second year, however, increases in plant height of 17.19%, 22.39% and 23.38% were realized for 3 m x 1 m, 4 m x 1 m and the control (No hedgerow) respectively with respect to 2 m x 1 m. Diameter at first node however, increased by 19.69%, 16.87% and 18.46% for control, 3 m x 1 m and 4 m x 1 m respectively with respect to 2 m x 1 m. Maximum grain yield of maize was 4.47 tons/ha in the first year at the control treatment, which differed significantly from the 2 m x 1 m, 3 m x 1 m, 4 m x 1 m treatments. Chemical properties of the soil did not record any significant decline after two years of cultivation for pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, organic matter, exchangeable cations, total exchangeable bases, exchangeable acids and base saturation. The highest Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) was recorded at 4 m x 1 m for both years, making it the most suitable plant spacing for J. curcas with maize while the highest economic returns were obtained at 4m x 1m and 3m x 1m spacing. The influence of storage period, fertilizer and spacing on the growth and yield of J. curcas propagated from seed were evaluated in a second experiment using two different designs. Seeds of J. curcas were stored for 1 to 12 months, sown on beds in a RCBD,replicated four times and their viability and germination energy tested. The results showed a progressive decline in germination from 98% after one month to 52% when stored for 12 months. The highest germination energy was obtained during the first two months of storage. Fertilizer and spacing effects were also evaluated in a split plot design in RCBD and replicated three times. Three plant spacings (D1=1m x 1m; D2=2m x 1m; D3=3m x 1m) and two fertilizer application levels (F0: 0kgNPK/ha, F1: 150kgNPK/ha) were used. Fertilizer and spacing interaction did not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) affect yield components of J. curcas. The fertilizer treatment however, had a significant effect on yield components and increased seed and fruit yield by 56.4% and 51.75% respectively. Spacing did not significantly affect seed yield. A third experiment on the variation in seed sources of J. curcas and polybag size on the growth of seedlings was laid out using a split plot design in RCBD with 3 replicates. The results showed significant variation in seed weight from the various seed sources but no differences in seed length and seed width. Seedling growth of J. curcas was highest when larger polybag size was used, however, it did not differ significantly from medium polybag size. Based on the results obtained medium polybag size would be ideal for raising seedlings. In a fourth experiment the decomposition trend of J. curcas leaves was assessed by placing 80 g fresh leaves in a 0.30 m x 0.30 m nylon litter decomposition bags of 2 mm mesh size under closed and open canopies. The total quantity of litter produced in a year at different spacings were 2.27 ton/ha, 1.10 tons/ha and 0.79 tons/ha for 1 m x 1m, 2 m x 1m and 3 m x 1m, respectively. The month of November had the highest litter fall (508.8 kg/ha) for 1 m x 1 m. J. curcas under open canopy had 97-99% of leaf litter decomposing by the end of the experimental period and a half-life of 25 days. Open canopy had the highest decomposition constant (k) of 0.020. In a final experiment the effect of aqueous extracts from leaves and roots of J. curcas on four traditional crops (Phaseolus vulgaris, Zea mais, Lycopersicon lycopersicum and Abelmoschus esculentus was examined. Aqueousextracts at concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% applied to the test crops affected all the crops. Extracts at higher concentrations of J. curcas had a strong inhibitory effect on germination, radicle and plumule length of all the test crops. The inhibitory effect suggests the presence of allelochemicals that could inhibit the growth of the crops. Generally, it can be concluded that J. curcas is compatible with maize in an alley cropping system but closer spacing of planting J. curcas can reduce maize yields. Management practices such as pruning could be applied to get the optimum benefit from the system.
A Thesis submitted to the, Department of Agroforestry, Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN AGROFORESTRY APRIL, 2011