The burden of drug resistance tuberculosis in Ghana; results of the First National Survey

Resistance to Tuberculosis drugs has become a major threat to the control of tuberculosis (TB) globally. We conducted the first nation-wide drug resistance survey to investigate the level and pattern of resistance to first-line TB drugs among newly and previously treated sputum smear-positive TB cases. We also evaluated associations between potential risk factors and TB drug resistance. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on conducting national TB surveys, we selected study participants from 33 health facilities from across the country, grouped into 29 clusters, and included them into the survey. Between April 2016 and June 2017, a total of 927 patients (859 new and 68 previously treated) were enrolled in the survey. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates were success fully cultured from 598 (65.5%) patient samples and underwent DST, 550 from newly diag nosed and 48 from previously treated patients. The proportion of patients who showed resistance to any of the TB drugs tested was 25.2% (95% CI; 21.8–28.9). The most frequent resistance was to Streptomycin (STR) (12.3%), followed by Isoniazid (INH) (10.4%), with Rifampicin (RIF), showing the least resistance of 2.4%. Resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampi cin (multi-drug resistance) was found in 19 (3.2%; 95% CI: 1.9–4.9) isolates. Prevalence of multidrug resistance was 7 (1.3%; 95% CI: 0.5–2.6) among newly diagnosed and 12 (25.0%; 95% CI: 13.6–39.6) among previously treated patients. At both univariate and multi variate analysis, MDR-TB was positively associated with previous history of TB treatment (OR = 5.09, 95% CI: 1.75–14.75, p = 0.003); (OR = 5.41, 95% CI: 1.69–17.30, p = 0.004). The higher levels of MDR-TB and overall resistance to any TB drug among previously treated patients raises concerns about adherence to treatment. This calls for strengthening
This article is published by Plos One and is also available at journal.pone.0252819
ylverken AA, Kwarteng A, Twumasi Ankrah S, Owusu M, Arthur RA, Dumevi RM, et al. (2021) The burden of drug resistance tuberculosis in Ghana; results of the First National Survey. PLoS ONE 16(6): e0252819