Modeling microwave protein-glycoconjugates formulations from protein-starch composites

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Glycation of food proteins has the great potential of improving the functionality of food systems which can lead to increased utilization of food and ultimately contribute to the reduction of food insecurity. The aim of this project was to produce a glycated protein as food ingredient to effect food functional properties of food model systems. The glycation of two types of composites; Bambara protein-rice starch and Bambara protein-cassava starch was achieved by microwave heat treatment at varying composite ratios and microwave times. Conditions for glycation were optimized using the mixture composite design of response surface methodology. Composites of Bambara protein-cassava starch gave higher glycation values as compared to composites of Bambara protein-rice starch. The maximum glycation for Bambara protein-cassava starch composite was 51.9 (μg/10mg) whiles that for Bambara protein-rice starch composite was 10 (μg/10mg). The optimum conditions were found to be 0.7 g protein, 0.3 g cassava starch and 2.0 min microwave time for Bambara protein-cassava starch composites and 0.6 g protein, 0.4 g rice starch and 6.0 min microwave time for Bambara protein-rice starch composites. It was generally observed that for both types of composites, glycation generally increased with increasing protein content whiles a decrease in both protein content and microwave time led to a reduction in glycated protein content. Bambara proteins can be used in food industries especially in the formation of glycated food proteins to improve the functionalities of locally manufactured food systems with unique food functionalities.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Food Science and Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Philosophy in Food Science and Technology.