Concentration of Pesticide Residues in Fermented Dried Cocoa Beans in Asukese and its Environs in the Tano North District of Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana

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The concentrations of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans in ten inorganic sampling sites and one organic sampling site in Asukese and its environs were determined using partially modified multi-residue method for Agricultural chemicals by GC/MS. The Organochlorine pesticides residues found in samples of cocoa beans were aldrin, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDE, p,p-DDT, endosulfan Sulphate, beta-endosulfan, alpha-endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate. Aldrin, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDE, p,p-DDT and endosulfan are insecticides banned for use in the cocoa industry by the European Union (EU) and Japan. The mean concentration of aldrin was found to be above the EU MRL of 0.05 mg/Kg, ADI of 0.0001 mg/Kg bw/day and the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 0.01 mg/Kg bw/day. P,p-DDD, p,p-DDE, and p,p-DDT were within their various MRLs but above the Acceptable Daily Intake of 0.001 mg/Kg bw/day. The Organophosphate Pesticides residues registered in cocoa samples were Ethophosphos, Fenitrothion, Malathion and Parathion. Fenitrothion and Parathion insecticides have been banned for use in the cocoa industry by the EU and Japan. Parathion, malathion and ethoprophos recorded mean residue concentration higher than their various MRLs except fenitrothion which recorded highest mean concentration lower than the EU MRL and ADI of 0.2 mg/kg and 0.002 mg/Kg bw /day respectively. The pyrethroids pesticide residue recorded in the cocoa beans samples analysed from all the 11 sites were fenvalerate, Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin and Permethrin. The highest mean concentration of fenvalerate (0.0898 mg/Kg) was found to be above the EU MRL and ADI but lower than the NOAEL value of 1.7 mg/Kg bw/day. The highest mean concentration of cypermethrin occurring in a sample was slightly higher than the EU MRL and would be unacceptable at the EU markets. The highest mean concentration of deltamethrin was 0.0035 mg/Kg which is far below the EU MRL and the Acceptable Daily Intake. Permethrin mean concentration of 0.0144 mg/Kg was moderately higher than the EU MRL and the ADI value of 0.05 mg/Kg bw/day. The study conducted showed no significant difference between pesticide residues in inorganic cocoa farms and the organic cocoa farms (Control) in Tano North of Brong Ahafo as indicated in the statistical results. Residues of Chemicals approved for use in the cocoa sector under the CODAPEC (mass Cocoa Spraying exercise) were not detected in the fermented dried cocoa beans samples analysed.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Environmental Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE (ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE) Faculty of Bioscience, College of Science,