Levels of Heavy Metals and Oil and Grease in the Rivers Panmu and Ankodee

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This study measured levels of the heavy metals; Iron, Copper, Lead and Cadmium as well as Oil and Grease in river water and sediment of the Rivers Panmu and Ankodee in the Dormaa Ahenkro Municipality in the Brong Ahafo, Ghana from January to March, 2012. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) was used in the determination of heavy metals in both water and sediment samples while Partition Gravimetric Method was used in the determination of oil and grease in the water samples. Six water and sediment samples were collected from four different sites along the courses of the rivers Panmu and Ankodee within the Dormaa Ahenkro Township. Generally, levels of heavy metals in sediment samples exceeded levels in the water column. Levels of heavy metals in both water and sediment samples were high and exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) health-based guideline values and United States EPA sediment quality guideline for heavily polluted sites, respectively. Iron levels were extremely high compared to the other heavy metals. Oil and Grease levels were however below the Ghana EPA guidelines for effluent discharge into natural water bodies. The Rivers Panmu and Ankodee are heavily contaminated with heavy metals as refuse dumps, fuel service stations and the various scrap metal fabrication workshops are located in their watersheds.
A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Environmental Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Master of Science Degree in Environmental Science, July-2014