Health risk assessment of PAH in bread

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June, 2017
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To investigate the health risk assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bread, Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the probabilistic cancer risk. A dietary survey at Kwadaso sub-metro Kumasi was conducted to determine bread consumption and as input variables in cancer risk assessment. The concentration of 12 PAHs in 47 bread samples was performed by HPLC/FLD. Six of the PAHs were detected and benzo [a] pyrene was not detected in any of the bread samples. The concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 0.54 to 1212.5 µg/kg whiles benzo [a] pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration ranged from 0.0021 to 3.99 µg/kg on wet weight (w.w). Naphthalene and it derivatives 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene were the dominant PAHs in the bread samples. The mean daily exposure to PAH in bread was 2.55E-10 mg/kg, bwday-1. The 95% percentile risk (2.06E-7) is lower than 10-6 , the cancer risk ‘acceptable’ range (less than 10-6) and it could be concluded that PAH in bread is likely not a health risk. Further studies are however needed on the content of PAHs in bread and other cereal products to effectively control dietary exposure to PAH since it is a major source of PAHs in diet.  
A Thesis submitted to the Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Science in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Food Quality Management,