Impact of industrial effluents on the quality of Onukpawahe Stream, Tema

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MAY, 2016
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Industrial effluents discharge into surface water body represents a high source of pollution in Ghanaian streams and rivers. They impact on the water quality, the microbial and aquatic flora. The current study was carried out to determine impact of industrial effluent on the quality of Onukpawahe Stream which receives industrial effluents as point sources in the Tema Motorway industrial area in the Tema Metropolis. Effluent samples were collected from six (6) selected industries and the water samples collected from sixteen (16) different locations on the Onukpawahe stream. Various physico-chemical parameters such as Biological oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Dissolved solids (TDS), Conductivity (EC), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Turbidity ,Temperature, Colour, Sulphate, Phosphate, Ammonia and Nitrate and heavy metals (Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr) and Iron (Fe) were analysed during the current investigation. The average values of all physico-chemical parameters (except pH and DO) were above the EPA guideline values and metals were considerably higher in the industrial effluent and downstream than upstream while effluent discharge point showed the highest values for all sampling sites. The lowest values for pH and DO were also recorded at effluent discharge point and concentrations of iron (Fe) downstream exceeded acceptable limits for surface waters. It was established in the study that the industries have polluted the stream and resulted in the poor quality of the Onukpawahe stream. Sources of water pollution include effluents from Abattoir (slaughter House) industry (high nitrate, chromium, BOD), food and beverage manufacturing industry (high pH, EC, TSS), Textile industry (high Pb, Colour and Cadmium, COD) and food processing industry (high EC and BOD). As a result, the quality of the whole stream according to the CCME Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) is classified as poor. The surface water and industrial effluent must be monitored on a continuous basis and the findings of this study should be useful for implementing pollution management strategies in the catchment area of the Onukpawahe Stream.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Water Resource Engineering and Management.