Food variety, dietary diversity, and type 2 diabetes in a multi‑center cross‑sectional study among Ghanaian migrants in Europe and their compatriots in Ghana: the RODAM study

Purpose The importance of dietary diversifcation for type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk remains controversial. We investigated associations of between- and within-food group variety with T2D, and the role of dietary diversifcation for the relation ships between previously identifed dietary patterns (DPs) and T2D among Ghanaian adults. Methods In the multi-center cross-sectional Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) Study (n = 3810; Ghanaian residence, 56%; mean age, 46.2 years; women, 63%), we constructed the Food Variety Score (FVS; 0–20 points), the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS; 0–7 points), and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) variety component (0–20 points). The associations of these scores, of a “rice, pasta, meat and fsh” DP, of a “mixed” DP, and of a “roots, tubers and plantain” DP with T2D were calculated by logistic regression. Results The FVS was inversely associated with T2D, adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropo metric factors [odds ratio (OR) for T2D per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase: 0.81; 95% confdence interval (CI) 0.71–0.93]. The DDS and the DQI-I variety component were not associated with T2D. There was no association of the “mixed” DP and the “roots, tubers and plantain” DP with T2D. Yet, the “rice, pasta, meat and fsh” DP is inversely
This article is published by Springer and is also available
Eur J Nutr (2018) 57:2723–2733