Assessing the Status of Water Point Sources Case Study: Ejisu- Juaben Municipality

Thumbnail Image
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Ghana and the world at large have committed themselves to attaining universal water coverage by the year 2015. Since the advent of this target, the focus has been on provision of water and increase in coverage rather than on type of water point sources; their location, quality, functionality and sustainability and for that matter little or no data exist on these factors. This study therefore sought to achieve these by mapping the water point sources within chosen study area, Ejisu-Juaben municipality, to provide technical information for sustainable management. In order to attain this objective, water point sources within the study area were identified and mapped, their quality as well as functionality was assessed. Finally factors affecting the sustainability of the water point sources were also identified. A period of three months was used for data collection and sampling within fifty four (54) communities out of eighty eight (88) based on four municipal zones (division). A total of 415 water point sources were identified and mapped using a Global Position System (GPS, DR Garmin) and water point mapper. The results showed that Boreholes (60%) and hand dug wells (39%) are the main water point sources within the municipality with 1% rain harvesting. Also, 54% of the water point sources are privately owned and managed (constituting 59% funding) and the remaining 46% being community owned with 34% funding from Government, 1% from NGOs and the remaining (6%) by the communities themselves. In terms of functionality, 11% of the water point sources were not functioning as a result of low yield, faulty pumps and high iron concentrations. A total of 114 water samples were analysed for physico-chemical and bacteriological quality. Bacteriologically only 6 (3 hand dug wells and 3 boreholes) of the sampled water point sources were within WHO guideline and this poses a threat to health. Generally, the average pH of 5.41 (indicating acidity) was not within WHO guideline of 6.5-8.5. However, Bowohomoden, Juaben, Peminase, Kwaso and Kubease recorded traces of iron and high levels of turbidity. From the interviews conducted, Community participation (community ownership), private partnership, managerial practices (water boards and unit committees) constitute the positive factors enhancing ASSESSING THE STATUS OF WATER POINT SOURCES. CASE STUDY: EJISU-JUABEN MUNICIPALITY ASANTEWAA PATRICIA MSc THESIS Page vi sustainability whereas lack of spare parts, technical experts and lack of financial support for operation and maintenance were identified as the negative factors affecting sustainability of water point sources. It is however recommended that CWSA should educate the people on how to disinfect their water point sources to avoid any future outbreak of water related diseases.
A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation,