Allele Frequency Distribution of FGA and D18S51 STR Markers among the Asante Population of Ghana

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August, 2017
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Short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly polymorphic loci in the human genome and are used worldwide for forensic identification. STR loci or markers are motifs with 2-6 base pair repeats in the chromosome of an individual. A key problem with STR application is that; in most sub-Saharan African countries of which Ghana forms a part, there is limited knowledge and information concerning allele frequency distributions among different populations. In this study, the allele frequencies of 60 unrelated Asante individuals among the Ghanaian population were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Statistical parameters of forensic importance such as observed and expected heterozygosity (HO and He), homozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC) were calculated for the study markers FGA and D18S51. The parameters indicated the effectiveness of the markers in forensic study among the Asante population. The PIC, He and Ho were 0.8580, 0.8704 and 0.3038 for FGA and 0.8358, 0.8530 and 0.2154 for D18S51, respectively. The obtained information on the FGA and D18S51 markers demonstrates that these loci are useful for forensic and identification purposes. This is the first time to establish the frequency distribution of FGA and D18S51 markers of which it is of much importance to the that Asante population and Ghana as a whole.
thesis submitted to the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Forensic Science