Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of the Leaves of Clerodendrum Splendens G. Don Verbenaceae

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Clerodendrum splendens is a common medicinal plant found mainly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions including ulcers, scrofulous infections, wounds, burns and asthma. The pet ether, ethyl acetate and 70% ethanolic extracts which were obtained by Soxhlet extractions of 1.0 kg of powdered leaves of C. splendens were evaluated for their anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity in both assays with the strongest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the least activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It again demonstrated the highest percentage of inhibition of oedema in the anti-inflammatory assay with a maximal percentage of inhibition of 66.09 ±13.13%. Fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of the known flavone apigenin and the cyclohexylethanoid Cleroindicin F. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR as well as comparison with published data. The activity of the extracts and the presence of apigenin and cleroindicin F in the ethyl acetate extract provide scientific support to the traditional use of the leaves of C. splendens for the treatment of infections, wounds and other inflammatory conditions.
A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master Of Philosophy in the Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences.