The effect of harvesting time, seed treatment and storage containers on the quality (viability) of seeds of Soyabean (Glycine Max L. Merril)

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Four experiments were set up investigate two cultivars of s6yälean, TGX 536-02D and TGX813-6D at the Department of Horticulture, U.S.T., Kumasi. Seeds of the two cultivars were harvested for storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 days after bysio1ogical maturity was reached. This was equivalent to 95, 100,- 105, 110, 115 and 120 Days Alter Emergence (DAE) respectively. All seeds were dried to 11% moisture content and stored in either polythene, cloth or per bags in the laboratory at room temperature. Seed viability (germination), weight, protein and oil contents were determined at periodic intervals. Results indicated that for both cultivars, seed viability was highest when harvested5 days after physiological maturity. Seeds harvested at this period recorded a germination of 83% after six (6) months in storage in sealed polythene bags in the laboratory at room temperature At I 0. 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after physiological maturity germination figures recorded for TGX 536- 02D were 66%, 44%, 18%, 11% and 5% respectively when stored for six months in sealed polythene bags. Similar figures were recorded for TQX 813-6D (viz 69%, 41%, 20%, 11% and 5% respectively For TGX 536-02D, seeds harvested 25 and 30 days after physiological maturity were found to have lost 36% and 43% viability respectively even before storage. However CV TGX 813-6D recorded a viability lost of 27% and 36% respectively. Generally, percentage germination decreased with delay in harvesting. The various stages of harvesting (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 days after physiological maturity) had no effect on the oil and protein content of seeds. Again these harvesting stages had no significant effect on seed weight and ultimately on seed yield. Among the three container types used (viz polythene, cloth and paper) polythene vas found to give the best protection to seeds. Polythene bags kept seeds harvested 5 days after physiological maturity alive for up to eight (8) months at room temperature ($1 % germination for TGX 536-02D and TGX 81 3-6D respectively). Seeds of the same lot kept in either cloth or paper bags lost their viability within live (5) months in storage under the same conditions (i.e. 42% and 4g% germination respectively for CV TGX 536-02D and 49% and 5% respectively for CV TGX 813-6D). With the chemical treatments, Neem seed oil and Neem leaf powder proved as effective as the imported Actellic (pirimiphos methyl). Neem seed oil just as the pirimiphos methyl gave 100% protection for up to six (6) months. Whereas Neem leaf power gave up to 85% protection groundnut oil was found to be ineffective against Ephestia cautella. For both cultivars, pH of seed exudate of the various stages of harvesting kept decreasing with storage. When kept in storage for periods ranging from two (2) to eight (8) weeks, pH values recorded for CVs TGX 536-02D and TGX g13-6D were 6.80 - 6.60 and 6.87 - 6.59 respectively.
A thesis submitted to the Board of Postgraduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of Master of Science in Horticulture, 1996