Dietary Exposure to Bisphenol a Associated with Consumption of Porridge (“Hausa Koko”)

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Bisphenol A (BPA), a member of diphenylmethane and bisphenols with two hydroxyl groups is used to produce certain types of plastics that are used in packaging food products. Containers made with these plastics may expose people to small amounts of BPA in food. ‘Hausa koko’ is a breakfast meal, packaged in transparent plastic film and popularly consumed in Ghana. The porridge is served at a temperature likely to enhance migration of bisphenol A from the transparent plastic film. This research sought to determine the levels of bisphenol A in the ‘Hausa koko’ and establish the risk of consumption. A cohort study using five vendors was used in this study. Structured questionnaires were used to assess consumption characteristics of ‘Hausa koko’ by 320 respondents. A modified QuEChERS method was used for extraction and clean-up of BPA from 120 samples of “Hausa koko”. A Cecil-Adept Binary Pump HPLC coupled with Shimadzu 10AxL fluorescence detector (Ex: 230 nm, Em: 316) with Phenonix C18, 5 μm, 3.9 x 150 mm column was used at column temperature maintained at 40 °C to determine the level of BPA in ‘Hausa koko’. Palisade @ risk software was used to determine the hazard quotient (HQ), of consumption of ‘Hausa koko’ to characterize risk. Results from the study indicated that bisphenol A leached into the food product at concentration of BPA ranging from < 0.005 ng/ml (below limit of detection) to 1.92 ng/ml. The rate of migration was affected by temperature, pH, storage time and sugar concentration. The HQ of BPA in “Hausa koko” with or without sugar was <1 indicating that consumers within the study population were at no significant health risk.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements Master of Science degree in Food Quality Management, 2016