Domestic wastewater characterisation and management at KNUST campus and Asafo suburb of Kumasi

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Domestic wastewater in Ghana has been poorly managed for decades. In order to manage it properly, the nature of the wastewater generated must be determined in quality and quantity. In addition problems associated with the management of wastewater must be identified and the necessary mitigation put in place for implementation. It is in view of the above that this study was carried out to characterised domestic wastewater and also looks for problems that have caused the failure for the treatment. KNUST campus treatment plant and Asafo stabilisation ponds were used for the study. The KNUST sewage and some sullage and Asafo sewage were characterised by first determining the flowrate. Based on that composite samples were taken for the characterisation The flowrate, which also gives the flow patterns shows that the KNUST sewage has maximum peak of 22.5m3/h at 7.00 GMT with the minimum peak of 11 .5m3/h at 15.00 GMT with the daily average flowrate of 15 .4m3/h. KNUST sullage has maximum peak of 1 .23m3/h at 10.00 and minimum peak of 0.35m31h at 5.00 GMT with the daily average flowrate of 0.26m/h while Asafo sewage has maximum peak of 77.43m3/h at 6.00 GMT and a minimum peak of 8. 15m3/h at 3.00 GMT with the daily average flowrate being 36.22m3/h. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of KNUST sullage, KNUST sewage and Asafo sewage were determined. The studies showed that Asafo sewage has the highest values in most characteristics like, Suspended Solids (1151.67 mg/l), BOD (1006.67 mg/l), COD (2540 mg/l), N03- (18.7 mg/l), N02- (0.16 mg/l), Phosphorus (17.00 mg/l), Total Coliform (4.18E+14/l00ml) and Faecal Coliform (5.85E+1 l/ 100ml). Helminth eggs including Ascaris spp (62117/1), Taenia .spp. (25307/l), Fasciola spp. (3473/l), Trichuris spp. (l236/l) and Schistosoma spp.(373/l) were all found to be highest in Asafo sewage. KNUST sewage showed highest values NH3-N (120.83 mg/l) and pH (8.22) while KNUST sullage showed highest values in Temperature (29.24 °C) and Dissolved Oxygen (2.71mg/l). Most of the values of these characters are far beyond Environmental Protection Agency of Ghana standards. The metals in all the samples recorded values ranging below 1.0mg/l except Ca and Mg which gave values of (2.81, 2.44, 2.72) mg/l and (6.05, 4.79, 4.52) mg/1 respectively for KNUST sullage KNUST sewage and Asahi sewage. The study showed that the problems leading to failure of wastewater treatment and its poor management include lack of, proper polices, financial support from the government and monetary contribution from the beneficiaries. Others are long chain of command in sewage administration poor design checks and poor operation and maintenance practices. To crown it all, are lack of, skilled personnel, training for personnel, logistics for work, proper working conditions and adequate salaries.
A thesis submitted to the Board of Postgraduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfilment of the requirement of Degree of Master of Science in Environmental science, 2000