Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of methanolic, aqueous and pet ether extracts of the leaves of Allanblackia Parviflora (A. Chevalier)

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MAY, 2016
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The research has investigated the phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of various extracts of Allanblackia parviflora. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars, alkaloids glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, steroids and cardiac glycoside with the absence of saponins. Antimicrobial investigation involving agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were used for preliminary examination and MIC determination respectively. The aqueous extract showed the highest activity against Candida albicans with zone of inhibition of 15.00 mm and MIC of 10 mg/ml. The methanolic extract showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a zone of inhibition of 12.00mm and MIC of 5 mg/ml with no activity from pet-ether extract. Antioxidant activity of the extract was established using DPPH scavenging assay, total antioxidant capacity and total phenol content. The extracts were found to possess DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 of 48.97μg/ml for the methanolic extract, 158μg/ml for the aqueous extract and1479 μg/ml for the pet ether extract. The standard (ascorbic acid) gave an IC50 of 29.91μg/ml. Total antioxidant capacity values obtained were 14.7953 mg/g, 13.7681 mg/g and 12.6185 mg/g for the methanolic extract, pet ether extract and aqueous extract respectively. Total phenol content values were 21.515mg/g for methanolic extract, 19.1836mg/g for pet ether extract and 15.66mg/g for aqueous extract. An in vivo carrageenan induced paw oedema method was used to assess therapeutic and prophylactic anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts in chicks. The methanolic extract exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity for therapeutic (300mg/kg -57.2%, 100mg/kg -54.19% and 30mg/kg-53.16%) and, prophylactic (300mg/kg-54.60%, 100mg/kg-51.20% and 30mg/kg -37.52%) assessment at the various concentrations respectively. Pet ether extract and aqueous extracts also gave significant anti-inflammatory activities at percentages of (52.30%, 30.00% and 25.43%), (45.41%, 35.96% and 23.00%) for prophylactic and (.12%, 47.00% and 25.00%), (50.90%, 46.29% and 45.41%) for therapeutic respectively
Dissertation submitted to The Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry of The Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences KNUST, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Philosophy Degree in Pharmaceutical Chemistry.