Smallholder irrigation technology in Ghana: Adoption and profitability analysis

Thumbnail Image
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Irrigation development is very critical to the development of the agricultural sector this is because it will ensure food security as farmers will be able to crop more than twice a year, which will improve yields and reduce rural poverty by creating rural employment which will help by ensuring yearlong agricultural production. This study examines the factors which influence the adoption of smallholder irrigation technologies in Ghana and their profitability. Data for the study was collected from January to March, 2011 in three well known irrigation districts namely the Keta municipality, Kasena Nankana East district and the Akuapem South municipality. The Probit model was employed to examine the probability of adopting either the ground water motor pump, ground water manual or the surface water motor pump irrigation systems. Gross margin analysis was also performed to determine the most profitable of the systems practiced. From the results, ground water motor pump irrigation was found to be the most profitable of the systems. The implicit wages of family labour for the smallholders under the different irrigation systems were derived so production functions were estimated. The empirical results show that surface water motor pump irrigators earn the highest implicit wages for family labour. Empirical results for the Probit model indicate that household size and association with farmer-based organization have significant impacts on the probability of adopting groundwater manual pump irrigation whilst farm size and extension contact had negative impacts. The probability to adopt groundwater motor pump irrigation is positively influenced by education farm size, land tenure, household size and gender whilst extension contact, experience and association have a negative effect. For surface water motor pump irrigators, farm size and extension had a positive and significant influence on adoption while land tenure and association negatively influenced adoption. In order to promote smallholder irrigation in Ghana the knowledge of farmers in the existing irrigation technologies must be facilitated through frequent participation in workshops, training programs. Farmers must also be helped to get the best out of their pumps by being trained on pump selection and maintenance, crop selection and agronomic practices, the handling of crops after harvest and marketing of produce. Financial institutions should also provide access to affordable loans on reasonable terms to farmers to enable them improve their operations
A thesis submitted to the Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree Of Master of Philosophy in Agricultural Economics