Nutritive Value of Samanea saman Seed and Whole Pod Meals as Feed Ingredients for Broiler Chickens

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Two studies, using broiler chickens, were conducted to determine the nutritive values of Samanea saman seed meal (SSSM) (containing seed only) and Samanea saman whole pod meal (SSPM) (containing pods and seeds) as feed ingredients. The studies also aimed at determining the effect of Samanea saman seed and whole pod meals on the growth performance, carcass quality, haematological and blood indices and economics of production of the broiler chicken. Three hundred (300) unsexed day old Cobb commercial strain of broilers each were used for the two studies (experiment 1 with Samanea saman seed meal and experiment 2 with Samanea saman whole pod meal). At 28 days of age (before the commencement of the feeding trial), two hundred and forty birds each were randomly selected and divided into four groups, each group constituting a treatment with three replicates per treatment in a completely randomised design. Four experimental diets each for seed meal and whole pod meal were formulated: a control diet with no Samanea saman seed or whole pod meals and three other diets containing processed Samanea saman seed or whole pod meals each incorporated at levels of 20 g, 40 g and 60 g kg-1 diet to replace fish meal and soyabean meal. These experimental diets and water were provided to the broiler chickens ad-libitum throughout the experiments. Chemical analyses of SSSM and SSPM indicated they are both fairly good sources of protein and mineral elements to partly meet the requirements of poultry. The results of experiment 1 (SSSM) revealed that the broiler chickens fed the control diet (T1) and 20 g (T2) Samanea saman seed meal kg-1 diet were significantly (p < 0.05) better in all the growth parameters evaluated than those on the 40 g SSSM kg-1 (T3) and 60 g SSSM kg-1 diets (T4). In study 2 using the whole pod meal, growth performance of all the parameters measured were similar (p > 0.05). Percentage carcass yield was significant (p < 0.05) among the various dietary treatments and had a decreasing trend as the dietary level of SSSM increased. However, it was rather the opposite for the SSPM where there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences among dietary treatments with an increasing pattern as the SSPM inclusion level increased. There were no significant differences in organ weights for both experiments. Also mortalities recorded in both feeding trials, were not ascribed to SSSM or SSPM. Haematological and blood biochemical indices for the two studies suggest that the physiological and health status of the birds were not affected by the various inclusion levels of Samanea saman seed and whole pod meals. It is recommended that both Samanea saman seed and pod meals could be valuable feed ingredients to be included up to 20 g kg-1 and 60 g kg-1, respectively of broiler chickens diets without any deleterious effects on growth performance and even confer economic benefits.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Animal Nutrition Faculty of Agriculture College of Agriculture and Natural Resources