Studies on growth and yield analysis and seed quality in some soyabean varieties Glycine max (L Merrill) in Ghana

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Experiments were conducted to assess, the physiological determinants of yield in four varieties of soyabean (Anidaso, Bengbie, Nakpanduri and TGX 1293-2D), the effects of nodulation on grain yield, the effects of stage of harvest on seed germination, and the length and method of storage on seed germination. The variety Anidaso produced the highest grain yield in all the four seasons (1993 major, 1993 minor, 1994 major and 1994 minor). The study showed that, seed size correlated positively with grain yield and probably influenced yield most. Anidaso, which was the highest yielding variety, had the largest seed Grain yield was also influenced by season of growth, with the highest yields recorded in the major seasons for all the varieties. Growth functions, particularly LAI, LAD and CGR were generally higher in the major than the minor seasons, while NARs were generally higher in the minor than the major seasons. Nodulation was generally very low and did not show any significant correlation with seed yield, probably because the soil was not inoculated with the Rhizobium bacterium. The study showed small seeds as having advantage over large seeds in germination and longevity. Differences were, however, marginal in seeds produced in the minor seasons while substantial differences were recorded in the major season seeds. The variety Nakpanduri (the smallest seeded variety) germinated better than all other varieties regardless of the storage materials used or length of storage. Germination of seeds was, however, best for seeds harvested in the minor seasons than for those harvested in the major seasons. This demonstrated that, environmental conditions (particularly rainfall) during harvesting and drying of seeds probably influenced germination and longevity most. It was also observed that, seeds harvested “before physiological maturity” germinated better than those harvested “at physiological maturity” and “harvest maturity”, particularly in the major seasons. The storage materials (paper bag and high-density polyethylene bag) used in this study did not show any marked differences in their ability to store seeds. The study showed that, weather conditions particularly rainfall and possibly temperature during the harvesting and drying period appear to be more important in determining the germinability and longevity of soyabean seeds than the materials used for storage.
A thesis submitted to the Board of Postgraduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of Master of Philosophy in Agronomy, 1997