Comparison of Energy Intensities at the Ghacem Cement Factories at Tema and Takoradi

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February 2010
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Cement factories at Tema and Takoradi were among the number of industries that were established after the nation attained independence in 1957. They were intended to provide cement for the infrastructure developments that were going on at that time, reduce importation bills on cement and create employment. This was intended to support the government policy of changing the agrarian society into industrialized one. As the nation industrialized and increased its Gross National Product (GNP), there was a clear trend towards higher consumption of energy. There was a rapid increase in the demand for electricity which the Electricity Company of Ghana, the supply authority, could not meet. It became necessary, therefore, to look at demand-side management of the power sector. This research has studied the production of cement at Ghacem cement factories at Tema and Takoradi. Major energy consuming items were identified and listed. Electric energy consumption data documented at the two factories, from the year 2000 to 2005, were obtained. The load factor was computed, on monthly basis, for the six-year period, for the two factories and graphs drawn to show the variations. Power factor at the two factories were found to be low so causes of the low levels of power factor were identified and ways of improving the power factor were suggested. Lists, showing the currents which would have been drawn by the two plants, had the power factor been improved to unity had been provided. Finally, electric energy intensities were also computed on monthly basis, graphs were drawn to depict the differences. The results were compared and discussed. The maximum difference of the energy intensity was found to be 10% in favour of Takoradi factory. The research identified this outcome to the installation of extra powerful dust plants at the Tema factory to control environmental pollution and the occasional use of vi concrete plant and shortcrete mortar plant which are not available at the Takoradi factory.
A Thesis submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Faculty of Mechanical and Agricultural Engineering,