Contamination and Human Health Risk Due to Toxic Metals in Dust from Transport Stations in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

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Chemistry Africa
The purpose of this study was to assess the contamination levels and human health risk that heavy metals in the dust from transport stations pose to the inhabitants of the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Dust samples were collected from 18 transport stations and analyzed for metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe, Sb, Ni, and Zn using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer prior to confirmation on an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Mercury concentrations were determined using Lumex RA-915M Zeeman automatic mercury analyzer. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Hg, Sb, and Zn were 6, 10, 130, 54, 30, 22, 16,518, < 1, 15 and 120 mg/kg, respectively. All the measured metal concentrations were higher than their background concentrations and the dust were heavily polluted with the metals. Pollution load indices revealed metal pollution was high in the metropolis. However, hazard indices for all the metals across the three exposure pathways were < 1, indicating no non-carcinogenic risk for both adults and children. Exposure to multiple metals was the main potential non-carcinogenic risk to children. Cadmium showed high carcinogenic risk index exceeding the safe limit of 1E0-4 for children, indicating that children are at risk. The study generally observed a higher health risk to children via ingestion compared to adults.
This article was published by Chemistry Africa.
Chemistry Africa