Impact of shared sanitation toilets on candidiasis infection among females in Auchi Community, Edo state, Nigeria.

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MAY, 2016.
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This study focused on the incidence of Candidiasis infection among females as it relates to shared sanitation toilets in educational institutions and domestic facilities in Auchi community of Edo State, Nigeria. Toilets and high vagina swab samples were analysed for the presence of Candida Albicans and the association with shared toilet. The laboratory investigation for the assessment of the presence of Candida Albicans used samples from squat holes, the walls, floors and handles of the shared sanitation toilet facilities and cultured at 370c for 24 hours and 48 hours. Results revealed that Candida Albicans were present in some shared sanitation toilets of both educational and domestic facilities in Auchi community. The high vagina swab samples revealed positive cases of candidiasis infection (22.73%) among females in the study area. The analysis of the use of toilets revealed that single household latrine was 46.8%. Shared household latrine 35.1% and shared neighbourhood latrine 18%; shared public latrine was not visible in the study area. Water closet stood out as being the type of toilet mostly used at home. Results of the investigation of the rate of usage and frequency of cleaning reveal that the females frequently use and clean the toilet facilities, though majority of the toilets physically inspected were in bad state; dirty and odorous. Suffice to say that Auchi community rely heavily on individuals’ bore hole and water vendors for their sources of water supply. There is a near absence of water utility in Auchi; this has impacted negatively on the sanitary conditions of the toilets and the choice of toilets currently being used. It is worthy to note that all respondents who practice open field defecation buy water from water vendors. The investigation of the effect of candidiasis infection on work and daily life of the respondents indicated statistical significance (0.000) at 99% confidence interval. This finding showed that there is very strong evidence that toilet infection can affect work and daily life of those infected.  
A thesis submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering in partial fulfilment of requirements for the Degree of Master of Science Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation