Technical feasibility study for the improvement of Jalingo water supply scheme in Taraba State of Nigeria

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A technical feasibility study for improving water supply to Jalingo, a fast growing town was necessitated by the acute water shortage occasioned by the creation of Taraba State in 1991, which made Jalingo the administrative capital. The rapid growth and development since then has put the existing public infrastructure including water supply under pressure. There is an existing water supply system and a distribution network using groundwater source, with an initially installed capacity of 6,500m3 per day, which has reduced to about 2,735 m3 per day. The present water supply obviously can no longer cope with the present water demand of about 22,466m3 per day. In considering means of improving the quantity and quality, the first step was to ascertain the number of inhabitants of the new metropolis and projecting future population, which was in turn used for the estimation of the present and future water demand. Relevant hydrological and hydrogeological data on three sources of water within the project area were collected and analyzed, namely, the River Benue at Lau, the groundwater in Jalingo and the River Lamurde. The data on the sources were subjected to analysis to ascertain their individual potentials to provide water in the right quantity and quality. Two of the sources were found to have the potential as sources of water supply in terms of quantity. The River Benue at Lau, with a minimum recorded discharge of 788.4million m3 per year in a critical dry year; and the groundwater in Jalingo with a typical minimum yield of 648,240 m3 per year from the boreholes located within the flood plain of river Lamurde (the source of recharge for groundwater in the area). Water samples from the sources were subjected to laboratory analysis, which revealed that some form of treatment is required for both sources, after comparing the parameters obtained with WHO guidelines. Laboratory analysis of water samples from the existing boreholes revealed that some parameters require improvement. This provided the inputs for designing suitable treatment processes comprising, Aeration, Filtration, Disinfection and storage for improving the water quality of the existing scheme. In view of the foregoing, it can be concluded that there is a shortage of potable water supply to the metropolis, which needs to be addressed. About 8.2million m3 of water is required per year to meet the present water demand, which is expected to increase to about I 9.3million m3 per year at the end of the design period to cater for a population of 225,393. The river Benue at Lau and groundwater in Jalingo can be exploited to boost water supply to the inhabitants. Recommendations were made on the ways of improving the overall water supply service to the metropolis.
A thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Master of Science, 2002